Vikneswari Perumal, Azizah A. Hamid, Amin Ismail, Khozirah Saari, Faridah Abas, Intan S. Ismail, Maulidiani ., Nordin H. Lajis, Alfi Khatib


Hyperlipidemia, a metabolic disorder closely associated with the modern life-style and eating habits, is increasingly prevalent among the world population. This study was conducted on obese rats to evaluate the efficacy of Cosmos caudatus leaves as a treatment of hyperlipidemia. Hyperlipidemic conditions were induced in rats by submitting them to a high-fat diet during 3 months. After this, the rats were administered 200 mg/kg body weight of an ethanolic C. caudatus leaf extract or 35 mg/kg body weight atorvastatin for four weeks. The rats treated with the C. caudatus extract showed a significant (P<0.05) reduction of plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and glucose, and a significant (P< 0.05) increase in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and Atherogenic Index values. The study indicated that supplementation with C. caudatus has a potential for the treatment of hyperlipidemia.


Hyperlipidemia; High Fat Diet; Cosmos caudatus; Atorvastatin; Rats; Obesity

Full Text:



Akiyama, T., Tachibana, I., Shirohara, H., Watanabe, N. and M. Otsuki. 1996. High-fat hypercaloric diet induces obesity, glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia in normal adult male Wistar rat. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pr. 31: 27-35.

Al-Hiari, Y., Shattat, G., Al-Qirim, T., El-Huneidi, W., Sheikha, G.A. and S. Hikmat. 2011. Antihyperlipidemic properties of novel N-(benzoylphenyl)-5-substituted-1H-indole-2-carboxamides in Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Molecules 16: 8292-8304.

Arai, Y., Watanabe, S., Kimira, M., Shimoi, K., Mochizuki, R. and N. Kinae. 2000. Dietary intakes of Flavonols, Flavones and Isoflavones by Japanese women and the inverse correlation between Quercetin intake and plasma LDL cholesterol concentration. J. Nutr. 130: 2243-2250.

Baba, S., Natsume, M., Yasuda, A., Nakamura, Y., Tamura, T., Osakabe, N., Kanegae, M. and K. Kondo. 2007. Plasma LDL and HDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL concentrations are altered in normo- and hypercholesterolemic humans after intake of different levels of cocoa powder. J. Nutr. 137: 1436-1441.

Alberto Dávalos, A., Fernández-Hernando, C., Cerrato, F., Martínez-Botas, J., Gómez-Coronado, D., Gómez-Cordovés, C. and M. A. Lasunción. 2006. Red Grape Juice Polyphenols Alter Cholesterol Homeostasis and Increase LDL-Receptor Activity in Human Cells In Vitro. J. Nutr. 136: 1766-1773.

Erlund, I., Koli, R., Alfthan, G., Marniemi, J., Puukka, P., Mustonen, P., Mattila, P. and A. Jula. 2008. Favorable effects of berry consumption on platelet function, blood pressure, and HDL cholesterol. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 87: 323–331.

Fernandes, N.P., Lagishetty, C.V., Panda, V.S. and S.R. Naik. 2007. An experimental evaluation of the antidiabetic and antilipidemic properties of a standardized Momordica charantia fruit extract. BMC Complem. Altern. M. 7: 29-37.

Fki, I., Bouaziz, M., Sahnoun, Z., Sayadi, S. 2005. Hypocholesterolemic effects of phenolic-rich extracts of Chemlali olive cultivar in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 13: 5362-5370.

Hoek-van den Hil, E.F., Keijer, J., Bunschoten, A., Vervoort, J.J., Stankova, B., Bekkenkamp, M. and E. M.Van Schothorst. 2013. Quercetin induces hepatic lipid omega-oxidation and lowers serum lipid levels in mice. Plos One. 8: 1-10.

Hsu, T. F., Kusumoto, A., Abe, K., Hosoda, K., Kiso, Y., Wang, M. F., and S. Yamamoto. 2006. Polyphenol-enriched oolong tea increases fecal lipid excretion. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 60: 1330–1336.

Ikhlas, B., Huda, N. and N. Ismail. 2011. Effect of Cosmos caudatus, Polygonum minus and BHT on physical properties oxidative process, and microbiology growth of quail meatball during refrigeration storages. J. Food Process Pres. 36, 55-66.

Jalil, A.M.M., Amin, I., Chong, P.P., Hamid, M. and S. H. S. Kamaruddin. 2009. Effect of cocoa extract containing polyphenols and methylxanthines on biochemical parameters of obese-diabetic rats. J. Sci. Food Agr. 89: 130-137.

Ji, G., Zhao, X., Leng, L., Liu, P. and Z. Jiang. 2011. Comparison of dietary control and atorvastatin on high fat diet induced hepatic steatosis and hyperlipidemia in rats. Lipids Health Dis. 10: 23-33.

Johnson-Delaney, C. 1996. A. Exotic Companion Medicine Handbook for Veterinarians. Wingers Publishing Incorporated, Florida.

Kanda, M., Satoh, K. and K. Ichihara. 2003. Effects of atorvastatin and pravastatin on glucose tolerance in diabetic rats mildly induced by streptozotocin. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 26: 1681-1684.

Kim, H. K., Choi, Y. H. and R. Verpoorte. 2010. NMR-based metabolomic analysis of plants. Nat. Protoc. 5: 536–549.

Koh, K.K., Quon, M.J., Han, S.H., Lee, Y., Kim, S.J. and E. K. Shin. 2010. Atorvastatin causes insulin resistance and increases ambient glycemia in hypercholesterolemic patients. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 55: 1209-1216.

Kumar, K.P., Reddy, A.R.N., Reddy, Y.N. and J. Anbu. 2010. Lipid lowering activity of Lercanidipine in hyperlipidemic rats. Int. J. Prac. Theol. 9: 73-75.

Loh, S.P. and O. Hadira. 2011. In vitro inhibitory potential of selected Malaysian plants against key enzymes involved in hyperglycemia and hypertension. Malays J. Nutr. 17: 77-86.

Manish, K., Aditi, K., Renu, A., Gajraj, S. and M. Poonam. 2011. Anti-obesity property of hexane extract from the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre in high fed cafeteria diet induced obesity rats. Int. Res. J. Pharm. 2: 112-116.

Matsuzawa, T., Hayashi, Y., Nomura, M., Unno, T., Igarashi, T., Furuya, T. and T. Kurokawa. 1997. Survey of the values of clinical chemistry parameters obtained for a common rat blood sample in ninety-eight Japanese laboratories. J. Toxicol. Sci. 22: 25-44.

Mediani, A., Abas, F., Khatib, A., Maulidiani, H., Shaari, K., Choi, Y.H. and N. H. Lajis. 2012. 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach to understanding the drying effects on the phytochemicals in Cosmos caudatus. Food Res. Int. 49: 763-770.

Mohamud, W.N.W., Ismail, A.A.S., Sharifuddin, A., Ismail, I.S., Musa, K.I., Kadir, K.A. and W. M. W. Bebakar. 2012. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its risk factors in adult Malaysians: Results of a nationwide survey. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pr. 96: 91-97.

Mustafa, R.A., Hamid, A.A., Mohamed, S. and F. A. Bakar. 2010. Total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and radical scavenging activity of 21 selected tropical plants. J. Food Sci. 75: C28–35.

Nakai, M., Fukui, Y., Asami, S., Toyoda-Ono, Y., Iwashita, T., Shibata, H., Mitsunaga, T., Hashimoto, F. and Y. Kiso. 2005. Inhibitory Effects of Oolong Tea Polyphenols on Pancreatic Lipase in Vitro. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53: 4593–4598.

Norhanom, A.W., Ashril, Y. and A. M. Mustafa. 1990. Pythochemicals and Biopharmaceutics from the Malaysian Rainforest. FRIM, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Ragasa, C.Y., Nacpil, Z.D., Penalosa, B.A., Coll, J.C and J. A. Rideout. 1997. Antimutagen and antifungal compounds from Cosmos caudatus. Philipp. J. Sci. 126: 199-206.

Rasdi, N. H. M., Samah, O. A., Sule, A. and Q. U. Ahmed. 2010. Antimicrobial studies of Cosmos caudatus Kunth. (Compositae). J. Med. Plants Res. 4: 669–673.

Shui, G., Leong, L., Rose, S., Eren, M., Murphy, S., Zhang, H., Thaxton, C.S., Chowaniec, J. and H. Perlman. 2012. A novel mouse model that develops spontaneous arthritis and is predisposed towards atherosclerosis. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 10: 1136-1143.

Shui, G., Leong, L.P. and S. P. Wong. 2005. Rapid screening and characterization of antioxidants of Cosmos caudatus using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogrp. 827: 127-138.

Stringer J. L. 2011. Basic Concepts in Pharmacology: What You Need to Know for Each Drug Class. The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc., New York.

Sukrasno, S., Fidriany, I., Anggadiredja, K., Handayani, W.A. and K. Anam. 2011. Influence of drying. Res. J. Med. Plant. 5: 189-195.

Tripathi K. D. 2003. Essentials of Medical Pharmacology. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers Pvt, New Delhi.

Virdi, J., Sivakami, S., Shahani, S., Suthar, A.C, Banavalikar, M.M. and M. K. Biyani. 2003. Antihyperglycemic effects of three extracts from Momordica charantia. J. Ethnopharmacol. 88: 107-111.

Xia, M., Hou, M., Zhu, H., Ma, J., Tang, Z. and Q. Wang Ling. 2005. Anthocyanins induce cholesterol efflux from mouse peritoneal macrophages: the role of the peroxisome proliferator-activated recepto γ-liver x receptor α-ABCA1 pathway. J. Biol. Chem. 280: 36792-36801.

Yan, M.X., Li, Y.Q., Meng, M., Ren, H.B. and Y. Kou. 2006. Long-term high-fat diet induces pancreatic injuries via pancreatic microcirculatory disturbances and oxidative stress in rats with hyperlipidemia. Biochem. Bioph. Res. Co. 347: 192-199.

Zang, M., Xu, S., Maitland-Toolan, K. A., Zuccollo, A., Hou, X., Jiang, B., Wierzbicki, M., Verbeuren, T. J. and R. A. Cohen. 2006. Polyphenols Stimulate AMP-Activated Protein Kinase, Lower Lipids, and Inhibit Accelerated Atherosclerosis in Diabetic LDL Receptor–Deficient Mice. Diabetes 55: 2180-2191.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2014 Vikneswari Perumal, Azizah A. Hamid, Amin Ismail, Khozirah Saari, Faridah Abas, Intan S. Ismail, Maulidiani ., Nordin H. Lajis, Alfi Khatib

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition
ISSN: 2307-4124 (Online), 2308-7943 (Print)
© EScience Press. All Rights Reserved.