Sara E. Spayd, James F. Harbertson, Maria S. Mireles


One hundred and seventy samples of North Carolina (NC) red wines at the State Fair Wine Competition in Oct 2012 were collected to assess the phenolic composition of NC wines. At least 75% of the grapes used for vinification were grown in NC to be included. Wines were from cultivars of Vitis vinifera L., French American hybrid and Vitis rotundifolia Mich. All wines were analyzed using the Adams-Harbertson Assay. Descriptive statistics were generated for cultivars 19years for V. vinifera wines that had eleven or more samples. Chambourcin and Noble wines had higher mean anthocyanin concentrations than the mean for all V. vinifera wines. Small polymeric pigment (SPP) concentration was lowest in Sangiovese and highest in Chambourcin and Cabernet Franc wines. Cabernet Franc wines had the highest and Noble wines the lowest large polymeric (LPP) pigment concentrations. Almost a four-fold difference in anthocyanin concentration was found due to vintage between the lowest and highest concentrations. Our data support the observation that NC V. vinifera wines are likely to be perceived as less astringent than wines from Washington and California based on tannin concentration and are low in anthocyanin concentration, hence relatively low in red color.


Vitis vinifera; Vitis rotundifolia; French-American hybrids; anthocyanins; tannins; cultivar

Full Text:



Adams, D.O. and J.F. Harbertson. 1999. Use of alkaline phosphatase for the analysis of tannins in grapes and red wines. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 50:247-252.

Adams, D.O., J.F. Harbertson, and E.A. Picciotto. 2004. Fractionation of red wine polymeric pigments by protein precipitation and bilsulfite bleaching. In Red Wine Color: Revealing the Mysteries. Waterhouse, A.L. and J.A. Kennedy., Eds.; Vol. 88 pp. 275-288. Am. Chem. Soc., Washington, DC.

Alongi, K.S., O.I. Padilla-Zakour, and G.L. Sacks. 2010. Effects of concentration prior to cold-stabilization on anthocyanin stability in Concord grape juice. J. Agr. Food Chem. 58:11325-11332.

Auw, J.M., V. Blanco, S.F. O’Keefe, and C.A. Sims. 1996. Effect of processing on the phenolics and color of Cabernet Sauvignon, Chambourcin, and Noble wines and juices. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 47:279-286.

Bosselli, E., R. Boulton, J. Thorngate, and N. Frega. 2004. Chemical and sensory characterization of DOC red wines from Marche (Italy) related to vintage and grape cultivars. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52:3843-3854.

Brossaud, F., V. Cheynier, and A.C. Noble. 2001. Bitterness and astringency of grape and wine polyphenols. Aust. J. Grape Wine Res. 7:33-39.

Carroll, D.E., E.B. Poling, and R.G. Goldy. 1991. Wine-grape Reference for North Carolina. NC Agric. Res. Ser. Bull. 480, pp. 31.

De Beer, D., J.F. Harbertson, P.A. Kilmartin, V. Roginsky, T. Barsukova, D.O. Adams, and A.L. Waterhouse. 2004. Phenolics: A comparison of diverse analytical methods. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 55:389-400.

Gawel, R. 1998. Red wine astringency: A review. Aust. J. Grape Wine Res. 4:74-95.

Goldy, R.G., E.P. Maness, H.D. Stiles, J.R. Clark, and M.A. Wilson. 1989. Pigment quantity and quality characteristics of some native Vitis rotundifolia Michx. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 40:253-258.

Hagerman, A.E. and L.G. Butler. 1978. Protein precipitation method for quantitative determination of tannins. J. Agric. Food Chem. 26:809-812.

Harbertson, J.F., R.E. Hodgins, L.N. Thurston, L.J. Schaffer, M.S. Reid, J.L. Landon, C.F. Ross, and D.O. Adams. 2008. Variability of tannin concentration in red wines. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 59:210-214.

Harbertson, J.F., J.A. Kennedy, and D.O. Adams. 2002. Tannin in skins and seeds of Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, and Pinot noir berries during ripening. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 53:54-59.

Jensen, J.S., H.H. Malmborg Werge, M. Egebo, and A.S. Meyer. 2008. Effect of wine dilution on the reliability of tannin analysis by protein precipitation. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 59:103-105.

Keller, M., L.J. Mills, R.L. Wample, and S.E. Spayd. 2005. Cluster thinning effects on three deficit-irrigated Vitis vinifera cultivars. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 56:91-103.

Kennedy, J.A., J. Ferrier, J.F. Harbertson, and C.P. des Gachons. 2006. Analysis of tannins in red wine using multiple methods: Correlation with perceived astringency. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 57:481-485.

Landon, J.L., K. Weller, J.F. Harbertson, and C.F. Ross. 2008. Chemical and sensory evaluation of astringency in Washington state red wines. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 59:153-158.

Lee, J.H. and S.T. Talcott. 2004. Fruit maturity and juice extraction influences ellagic acid derivatives and other antioxidant polyphenolics in muscadine grapes. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52:361-366.

Liang, Z., Y. Yingzhen, L. Cheng, and G.-Y. Zhong. 2012. Polyphenolic composition and content in the ripe berries of wild Vitis species. Food Chem. 132:730-738.

Mercurio, M.D. and P.A. Smith. 2008. Tannin quantification in red grapes and wine: comparison of polysaccharide- and protein-based tannin precipitation techniques and their ability to model wine astringency. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56:5528-5537.

Singleton, V.L. and J.A. Rossi.1965. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotun- gstic acid reagents. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 16:144-158.

Skogerson, K., M. Downey, M. Mazza, and R. Boulton. 2007. Rapid determination of phenolic components in red wines from UV-visible spectra and the method of partial least squares. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 58:318-325.

Somers, T.C. 1971. The polymeric nature of wine pigments. Phytochemistry 10:2175-2186.

Talcott, S.T. and J.H. Lee. 2002. Ellagic acid and flavonoid antioxidant content of muscadine wine and juice. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50:3186-3192.

Spayd, S.E., J.M. Tarara, D.L. Mee, and J.C.Ferguson. 2002. Separation of sunlight and temperature effects on composition of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot berries. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 53:171-182.

Zhu, L., Y. Zhang, J. Deng, H. Li, and J. Lu. 2012. Phenolic concentrations and antioxidant properties of wines made from North American grapes grown in China. Molecules 17:3304-3323.

Zhu, L., Y. Zhang, and J. Lu. 2012. Phenolic contents and compositions in skins of red wine grape cultivars among various genetic backgrounds and originations. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13:3492-3510.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2015 Sara E. Spayd, James F. Harbertson, Maria S. Mireles

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition
ISSN: 2307-4124 (Online), 2308-7943 (Print)
© EScience Press. All Rights Reserved.