The covid-19 pandemic effect to livelihood strategy adaptation of rubber smallholding household: a case study in Songkhla province, the southern Thailand

Buncha Somboonsuke, Buncha Somboonsuke, Milinpat Boonkongma, Narumon Preuksa, Rawee Chiarawipa, Chaiya Kongmanee, Pimpakan Potikul


The objective of this study was to study how COVID-19 affected the livelihood of rubber smallholding households in Songkhla Province. Total 280 households were randomly selected and interviewed using questionnaire. The results revealed that, finding both positive and negative impact of economy, 74.3% of respondents showed that farmers had adequacy of financial assets, fewer consuming products purchased from the community market and switched to buying more products from supermarkets at 69.7%, decreasing incomes at 93.6%, more saving with considering home expenditure at 92.7%, and 74.3% of farmers had more plantation management.  95.4% of farmers reported changes in social capital as a result of the impact on their livelihood, and 56.0% of farmers were required to take part in the government's initiative to enhance their standard of living. The effects of livelihood adaptation strategies on rubber-producing techniques include an improvement in production efficiency, a decrease in production costs, an expansion of production, an increase in the diversify of production systems, the use of hired labor, employment outside the farm sector, and household financial management. When examining the contributing factors, the livelihood adaption strategies of rubber smallholding households can be explained at 63.7% (R2 adjust=0.637) by social effect, economic effect, production technology, and environment effect. It was discovered that social effect was best explained (0.490Zx1). The study recommended farm adaptation strategies, including increasing the use of household labor rather than hired labor, using online market channels with different media, increasing farmers' digital markets to adapt agricultural products and livelihoods, and providing a financial plan, diversifying the production system, and increasing sources of income.


COVID-19; Pandemic; Rubber; Smallholder Households; Adaptation strategies; Livelihoods


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DOI: 10.33687/ijae.011.001.4478


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