Effect of small hydropower projects on human development index in Azad Jammu and Kashmir

Mahwish Siraj, Shahid Ali, Syed A. Shah, Farhat U. Khan, Imran Khalid


This study investigated the impact of rural electrification on the Human Development Index in the Hattian Bala district of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The 346 of beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of small hydropower projects was selected randomly from 10 villages. The interview schedule was utilized for the collection of data. Face to face interview schedule consisted of three socio-economic parameters such as income, health and education which are central to Human Development Index (HDI). The HDI of villages using renewable energies from small hydropower appeared 0.412 while for un-electrified it was 0.047. Among the indices of income, health and education it was observed that the index of education was lower (0.236) than the health (0.339) and Income index (0.675) Even though literacy level was high in the area under study but most of the respondent’s family members were aged up to 16 years (matriculation level) the weight age for the adult literacy index is 2/3 as compared to the gross enrolment index. Results also point out that the electrification in rural areas makes a great contribution to the development of that area because the availability of energy has a significant impact on different social and economic circumstances in developing countries. Findings of the study recommend that small hydropower projects, particularly in the northern belt of the country are very supportive in improving the living standard of communities.


Hydropower Project; HDI; Renewable energy; Income sources


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DOI: 10.33687/ijae.010.02.4160


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