COVID-19 Pandemic, household income and coping strategies in Nigeria
This study analyzed the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on household income and the determinants of coping strategies in Nigeria, using the combination of the COVID-19 National Longitudinal Phone Survey data and the fourth wave of the General Household Survey, Panel 2018-2019. The fourth wave of General Household Survey, Panel 2018-2019 data is part of the World Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study–Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA) and the National Bureau of Statistics of Nigeria collected the data in collaboration with the World Bank and funded by the Federal Government of Nigeria and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The COVID-19 National Longitudinal Phone Survey 2020, Baseline was implemented by the National Bureau of Statistics in collaboration with the World Bank. The analyses were based on multinomial logistic and multivariate probit models. Multinomial logit regression analysis shows that households that consider the pandemic a substantial threat and households with older heads were more likely to have decreased income while households that received transfer income and self-employed were more likely to have increased income. Several household characteristics exhibited different levels of influence on the choice of coping strategies during the lockdown. Therefore, policy options and support facilities should be developed to foster meaningful (wage/self) employment and coping strategies to achieve optimal results in response to the pandemic.
Amare, M., K. A. Abay, L. Tiberti and J. Chamberlin. 2021. COVID-19 and food security: Panel data evidence from Nigeria. Food Policy, 101: 102099-99.
Arun, G. C. and J. H. Yeo. 2019. Perception to Adaptation of Climate Change in Nepal: An Empirical Analysis Using Multivariate Probit Model. Sci, 1: 57.
Bedeke, S., W. Vanhove, M. Gezahegn, K. Natarajan and P. Van Damme. 2019. Adoption of climate change adaptation strategies by maize-dependent smallholders in Ethiopia. NJAS: Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, 88: 96-104.
Belderbos, R., M. Carree, B. Diederen, B. Lokshin and R. Veugelers. 2004. Heterogeneity in R&D cooperation strategies. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 22: 1237-63.
Cheng, S. and J. S. Long. 2007. Testing for IIA in the Multinomial Logit Model. Sociological Methods & Research, 35: 583-600.
FMFBNP. 2020. Ministerial press statement on fiscal stimulus measures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic & oil price fiscal shock. https://statehouse.gov.ng/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/HMFBNP-Final-Press-Statement-on-Responding-to-the-COVID-19-06.04.2020-v.7.docx-1.pdf. Place Published.
Harris, J., L. Depenbusch, A. A. Pal, R. M. Nair and S. Ramasamy. 2020. Food system disruption: initial livelihood and dietary effects of COVID-19 on vegetable producers in India. Food security, 12: 841-51.
Hopkins, J. 2021. Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Cases Data. https://data.humdata.org/dataset/novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov-cases. Place Published.
ILO. 2020. The impact of the COVID-19 on the informal economy in Africa and the related policy responses. An ILO Note, 14 April 2020.
ILO-OECD (2020). The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on jobs and incomes in G20 economies. ILO-OECD paper prepared at the request of G20 Leaders Saudi Arabia’s G20 Presidency 2020. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---cabinet/documents/publication/wcms_756331.pdf. Accessed 17th November, 2022. Place Published.
IMF. 2020. IRegional economic outlook. Sub-Saharan Africa: COVID-19: an unprecedented threat to development. International Monetary Fund (IMF). Place Published.
Kansiime, M. K., J. A. Tambo, I. Mugambi, M. Bundi, A. Kara and C. Owuor. 2021. COVID-19 implications on household income and food security in Kenya and Uganda: Findings from a rapid assessment. World development, 137: 105199-99.
Koos, C., P. Hangoma and O. Mæstad. 2020. Household wellbeing and coping strategies in Africa during COVID-19–findings from high frequency phone surveys. Chr. Michelsen Institute.
Long, J. S. and J. Freese. 2006. Regression models for categorical dependent variables using Stata. Stata press.
National Bureau of Statistics. 2019. General Household Survey, Panel (GHS-Panel) 2018-2019. Dataset downloaded from https://microdata.worldbank.org/index.php/catalog/3557 on 2nd June, 2020. Place Published.
———. 2020a. Nigeria - COVID-19 National Longitudinal Phone Survey 2020, Baseline. National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) - Federal Government of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria. Place Published.
———. 2020b. Nigeria COVID-19 National Longitudinal Phone Survey (COVID-19 NLPS) 2020. Dataset downloaded from [https://microdata.worldbank.org/index.php/catalog/3712] on [16th June, 2020]. Place Published.
National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). 2021. COVID-19 National Longitudinal Phone Survey 2020-2021: Phase 1. https://microdata.worldbank.org/index.php/catalog/3712/study-description. Accessed 19th November, 2022 Place Published.
NCDC. 2020. COVID-19 Regulations, 2020. https://covid19.ncdc.gov.ng/resource/COVID-19_REGULATIONS_2020_20200330214102.pdf. Place Published.
———. 2021. An update of COVID-19 outbreak in Nigeria. COVID-19 Situation Reports. https://covid19.ncdc.gov.ng/ Place Published.
Oyekale, T. O. and A. S. Oyekale. 2021. Determinants of Food Insecurity during COVID-19 Pandemic in Nigeria: A Random Effects Ordered Probit Approach. Acta Universitatis Danubius,, 17: 67-83.
Oyewale, A., O. Adebayo and O. Kehinde. 2020. Estimating the impact of COVID-19 on small and medium scale enterprise: evidence from Nigeria. https://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/111225.
Ozili, P. K. 2020. COVID-19 Pandemic and Economic Crisis: The Nigerian Experience and Structural Causes. SSRN Electronic Journal.
Ozili, P. K. and T. Arun. 2020. Spillover of COVID-19: Impact on the Global Economy. SSRN Electronic Journal.
https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3562570Swarna, . Place Published.
Swarna, N. R., I. Anjum, N. N. Hamid, G. A. Rabbi, T. Islam, E. T. Evana, N. Islam, M. I. Rayhan, K. Morshed and A. S. M. J. Miah. 2022. Understanding the impact of COVID-19 on the informal sector workers in Bangladesh. PloS one, 17: e0266014.
United Nations. 2021. Delta variant, a warning the COVID-19 virus is getting ‘fitter and faster.’ https://news.un.org/en/story/2021/07/1096792. Place Published.
WHO. 2021a. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/question-and-answers-hub/q-a-detail/coronaviruse-disease-covid-19.
———. 2021b. WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard. https://covid19.who.int/. Place Published.
World Bank. 2020. Assessing the economic impact of COVID-19 and policy responses in sub-Saharan Africa. The World Bank Group. Place Published.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2023 Robert Ugochukwu Onyeneke
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.