Hand pollination exercise and cocoa farmers’ perceived change in livelihood: implications for extension practice in Ghana

Enoch K. Tham-Agyekum, John-Eudes A. Bakang, Mary Quansah, Maxwell Asiamah, Philip Kokonu, Fred Nimoh


Using data collected from 384 cocoa farmers through the multi-stage sampling technique, the study assessed the hand pollination exercise and its perceived influence on cocoa farmers’ livelihood. Descriptive and inferential statistics such as frequencies, percentages, means, standard deviation and paired sample t-tests were used to analyse the data. The results show that majority of the cocoa farmers agreed that the hand pollination exercise was a good programme. The adoption of hand pollination significantly improved the production and income of cocoa farmers. Cocoa farmers perceived that their livelihoods had improved as a result of participating in the hand pollination exercise. The highest perceived livelihood change was observed in financial capital. The majority of the cocoa farmers were affected by the lack of rain during hand pollination periods. The study recommends that apart from the financial capital of cocoa farmers, extension agents should expand their efforts to encourage the practice of hand pollination in cocoa in order to improve the other essential livelihood capitals of cocoa farmers.


Asset acquisition; Capital; Cocoa farmers; Hand pollination; Income; Livelihood; Perception; Yield


Adjaloo, K. M. 2012. Pollination Ecology of Upper Amazon Cocoa and Breeding Substrates Of Cocoa Pollinators In The Ejisu Juabeng District Of The Ashanti Region, Ghana, Unpublished Thesis, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

Afrifa, A. A., K. Ofori-Frimpong, M. R. Appiah, S. Acquaye and D. Snoeck. 2006. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium budget under the cocoa ecosystem: Produce harvesting phase, 15th International Conference on Cocoa Research. San José, Costa Rica. Place Published.

Altshuler, D. L. 1999. Novel interactions of non-pollinating ants with pollinators and fruit consumers in a tropical forest. Oecologia, 119: 600-06.

Anim-Kwapong, G. J. and E. B. Frimpong. 2004. Vulnerability of agriculture to climate change on cocoa production. Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment Under the Netherlands Climate Change Studies Assistance Programme Phase 2 (NCCSAP2) Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, New Tafo Akim, Ghana. Place Published.

Anthonio, D. C. and E. D. Aikins. 2009. Reforming Ghana´ s cocoa sector - an evaluation of private participation in marketing. Master Thesis, Luleå University of Technology Master. Place Published.

Anthony, E., Agbongiarhuoyi, O. Taiwo, F. B. Solomon and O. Joseph Olumide. 2014. Perception of cocoa farmers to voluntary standard certification: An implication on Cocoa Transformation in Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, 7: 17-20.

Appiah, M. R. 2004. Impact of Cocoa Research Innovations on Poverty Alleviation in Ghana. Ghana. Academy of Arts and Sciences. Liberation Link, Accra, Ghana. Place Published.

Badu, A. 2019. Farm Management Practices and Its Contribution to Cocoa Yield in the Asutifi North District of Ghana, Unpublished MPhil Thesis, Department of Geography and Resource Development, University of Ghana, Legon-Accra. Place Published.

Bosompem, M., J. A. Kwarteng and E. Ntifo-Siaw. 2011. Perceived impact of cocoa innovations on the livelihoods of cocoa farmers in Ghana: the sustainable livelihood framework (Sl) approach. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 13: 285-99.

Breisinger, C., X. Diao, S. Kolavalli and J. Thurlow. 2008. The role of cocoa in Ghana´s future development: Ghana Strategy Support Program (GSSP). 16. http://ebrary.ifpri.org/utils/getfile/collection/p15738coll2/id/31410/filename/31411.pdf. Place Published.

Cobbina, J. 2014. Technical Efficiency of Cocoa Production in Ghana, a case study of Upper Denkyira East Municipality. Master of Philosophy Thesis, Nkwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana. Place Published.

COCOBOD. 2000. Ghana Cocoa Board Handbook.8th ed. Jamieson's Cambridge Faxbooks Ltd, Accra. 62pp. Place Published.

———. 2018. Environmental and Social Management Plan 3.1:4-5, Ghana Cocoa Board, Retrieved from https://esa.afdb.org.org. Place Published.

Danquah, J., J. Kuwornu, R. Baffoe-Asare, F. Annor-Frempong and C. Zhang. 2015. Smallholder Farmers’ Preferences for Improved Cocoa Technologies in Ghana. British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, 5: 150-65.

Donald, P. F. 2004. Biodiversity Impacts of Some Agricultural Commodity Production Systems. Conservation Biology, 18: 17-38.

Dormon, E. N. A., A. Van Huis, C. Leeuwis, D. Obeng-Ofori and O. Sakyi-Dawson. 2004. Causes of low productivity of cocoa in Ghana: farmers' perspectives and insights from research and the socio-political establishment. NJAS: Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, 52: 237-59.

Forbes, S. J., G. Mustiga, A. Romero, T. D. Northfield, S. Lambert and J. C. Motamayor. 2019. Supplemental and Synchronized Pollination May Increase Yield in Cacao. HortScience, 54: 1718-27.

Frimpong-Anin, K., M. K. Adjaloo, P. K. Kwapong and W. Oduro. 2014. Structure and Stability of Cocoa Flowers and Their Response to Pollination. Journal of Botany, 2014: 1-6.

Gupta, A., R. K. Godara, A. K. Panda, S. Sharma and L. Kaushik. 2017. Effect of Pollen Sources on Quality Characteristics of Different Cultivars of Date Palm (P. dactylifera L.) under Haryana Conditions. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 6: 71-77.

Kassie, M., P. Zikhali, K. Manjur and S. Edwards. 2009. Adoption of sustainable agriculture practices: Evidence from a semi-arid region of Ethiopia. Natural Resources Forum, 33: 189-98.

Klein, A. M., I. Steffan-Dewenter and T. Tscharntke. 2003. Pollination of Coffea canephora in relation to local and regional agroforestry management. Journal of Applied Ecology, 40: 837-45.

Tham-Agyekum, E. K., E. L. Okorley, J. Kwarteng, J.-E. A. Bakang and F. Nimoh. 2021. Enhancing Market Orientation of Cocoa Farmers through Farmer Business Schools: The Ghana Cocobod Experience. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development, 11: 129-38.

Toledo-Hernández, M., T. Tscharntke, A. Tjoa, A. Anshary, B. Cyio and T. C. Wanger. 2020. Hand pollination, not pesticides or fertilizers, increases cocoa yields and farmer income. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 304: 107160.

Wongnaa, C. A., I. A. Apike, S. Babu, D. Awunyo-Vitor and A. B. Kyei. 2021. The impact of adoption of artificial pollination technology in cocoa production: Evidence from Ghana. Journal of Agriculture and Food Research, 6: 100208.

World Bank Group. 2018. Third Ghana Economic Update: agriculture as an engine of growth and jobs creation. World Bank, February, 1–63. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/113921519661644757/Third-Ghana-Economic-Update-agriculture-as-an-engine-of-growth-and-jobs-creation. Place Published.

Yamane, T. 1967. Statistics, An Introductory Analysis, 2nd Ed., New York: Harper and Row.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.33687/ijae.010.01.4058


Copyright (c) 2021 Enoch Kwame Tham-Agyekum, John-Eudes Andivi Bakang, Mary Quansah, Maxwell Asiamah, Philip Kokonu, Fred Nimoh

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.