Training needs of agricultural extension agents regarding climate change in Egypt

Tamer G. I. Mansour, Mahmoud A.M. Al-Ruwaini


This study aimed to identify the training needs of agricultural extension agents in the Kafr El-Sheikh governorate regarding climate changes, their sources of knowledge, the role they played, and the challenges that hindered their role coping with climate changes. Data were collected through a questionnaire from 105 respondents from August to September 2021. Findings unveiled that 55.2% of the respondents fell into the age group 48-54 years, 81.9% of respondents had University Education, and 81.9% of respondents were specialized in agricultural extension. Colleagues were the most important sources of information about climate changes for the respondents., Newspapers, magazines, and radio programs came in lagging ranks as an information source. The results further showed that the respondents had good knowledge about climate change. Agricultural extension agents have undertaken many activities to reduce the negative effects of climate change including, raising farmers' awareness about the dangers of burning agricultural waste 67.6%, the importance of preserving and maintaining natural resources 61%, and the importance of planting adapted varieties to climate change 2.55%. The most important obstacles facing the respondents were the difficulty of accessing weather information promptly, lack of training courses, and lack of a clear extension policy to confront this phenomenon. 


Needs; Training; Climate change; Agricultural extension Extension; role; Kafr El-Sheikh


Abu-Hadid, A. F. 2010. Climate Changes and Their Impact on the Agriculture Sector in Egypt and How to Confront the General Administration of Agricultural Culture, Technical Bulletin No. 9 Place Published.

Afsar, N. and M. Idrees. 2019. Farmers perception of agricultural extension services in disseminating climate change knowledge. Sarhad journal of agriculture, 35: 942-47.

Al-Sinawi, S., C. Y. Piaw and A. R. Idris. 2015. Factors Influencing the Employees’ Service Performance in Ministry of Education in Sultanate of Oman. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 197: 23-30.

Ali, S., Y. Liu, M. Ishaq, T. Shah, Abdullah, A. Ilyas and I. U. Din. 2017. Climate Change and Its Impact on the Yield of Major Food Crops: Evidence from Pakistan. Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 6: 39.

Alibaygi, A. and K. Zarafshani. 2008. Training needs of Iranian extension agents about sustainability: The use of Borichs need assessment model. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 3: 681-87.

Central Administration for Climate Change. 2018. Climate Change and Ways to Counter Its Effects, Ministry of Environment,

Environmental Affairs Agency, Egypt. . Place Published.

Davis, K. and W. Heemskerk. 2012. Investment in Extension and Advisory Services as Part of Agricultural Innovation Systems Overview. The World Bank. Place Published. pp.179-259.

El-Hamouli, M. I. Adel-Ibrahim, Abdel-Khaleq A. and M. E.-H. Hala. 2019. Studying the training needs of extension workers in the field of climate change and its impact on fish production in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate (from the point of view of agricultural extension agents). Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Sciences, 45: 239-53.

Elsharkawy, H., H. Rashed and I. Rached. 2009. Climate change: The impacts of sea level rise on Egypt, 45th ISOCARP. . Place Published.

Fabusoro, E., J. A. Awotunde, C. I. Sodiya and C. I. Alarima. 2008. Status of Job Motivation and Job Performance of Field Level Extension Agents in Ogun State: Implications for Agricultural Development. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, 14: 139-52.

Fahey, D. W., S. J. Doherty, K. A. Hibbard, A. Romanou and P. C. Taylor. 2017. Ch. 2: Physical Drivers of Climate Change. Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I. U.S. Global Change Research Program. Place Published.

FAO. 2016. The State of Food and Agriculture: Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security. Available online at Place Published.

Fawaz, M. and S. Soliman. 2015. Economic Study of Climate Changes and Its Effects on Sustainable Agricultural Development in Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 25: 1177-96.

Gbetibouo, G. A. 2009. Understanding farmers' perceptions and adaptations to climate change and variability: The case of the Limpopo Basin, South Africa. Intl Food Policy Res Inst.

Hanan, A., A. Abdel-Dayem, M, and A. Dina H. 2016. Knowledge of agricultural extension agents related to the phenomenon of climate change and their implementation of their extension activities in some governorates of Lower Egypt. Journal of Economics and Social Sciences, Mansoura University, 7: 1213.

Hansen, J. W., C. Vaughan, D. M. Kagabo, T. Dinku, E. R. Carr, J. Körner and R. B. Zougmoré. 2019. Climate Services Can Support African Farmers' Context-Specific Adaptation Needs at Scale. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, 3.

Hatfield, J. L., K. J. Boote, B. A. Kimball, L. H. Ziska, R. C. Izaurralde, D. Ort, A. M. Thomson and D. Wolfe. 2011. Climate Impacts on Agriculture: Implications for Crop Production. Agronomy Journal, 103: 351-70.

Ho, T. T. and K. Shimada. 2018. The impact of climate change adaptation response on rice farmers’livelihood in soc trang province of vietnam. International Journal of Food and Agricultural Economics (IJFAEC), 6: 11-31.

IFPRI FORUM. 2005. Building local skills and knowledge for food security. International Food Policy Research Institute. available at: Place Published.

IISD. 2012. CRiSTALUser’s Manual Version 5: Community-based Risk Screening Tool – Adaptation & Livelihoods. The International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Helvetas Swiss Intercooperation, & Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), IISD, Winnipeg, MB, Canada. available at: Place Published.

IPCC. 2014. Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 151. Place Published.

Islam, M. S. and Y. Zhang. 2019. The potential of strategic environmental assessment to reduce disaster risks through climate change adaptation in the coastal zone of Bangladesh. International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, 11: 137-53.

Jotzo, F. 2003. Climate Change and Developing Countries N.H. Ravindranath and Jayant A. Sathaye, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2002, pp. 286. Climate Policy.

Kassie, M., H. Teklewold, M. Jaleta, P. Marenya and O. Erenstein. 2015. Understanding the adoption of a portfolio of sustainable intensification practices in eastern and southern Africa. Land Use Policy, 42: 400-11.

Lewis, P., M. Monem and A. Impiglia. 2018. Impacts of climate change on farming systems and livelihoods in the near east and North Africa-With a special focus on small-scale family farming. Cairo, FAO, 92: 21-22.

Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation. 2009. Agricultural Development Strategy 2030 Cairo Place Published.

Mittal, S. and M. Mehar. 2015. Socio-economic Factors Affecting Adoption of Modern Information and Communication Technology by Farmers in India: Analysis Using Multivariate Probit Model. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, 22: 199-212.

Msuya, C. P., F. K. Annor-Frempong, M. N. Magheni, R. Agunga, C. Igodan, A. A. Ladele, K. Huhela, N. M. Tselaesele, H. Msatilomo and C. Chowa. 2017. The role of agricultural extension in Africa’s development, the importance of extension workers and the need for change. International Journal of Agricultural Extension, 5: 51-58.

Ndiritu, S. W., M. Kassie and B. Shiferaw. 2014. Are there systematic gender differences in the adoption of sustainable agricultural intensification practices? Evidence from Kenya. Food Policy, 49: 117-27.

Ogunlade, I., S. A. Aderinoye-Abdulwahab and A. O. Mensah. 2014. Knowledge Levels of Extension Agents and their Perceived Impact of Climate Change on Extension Service Provision in Ghana. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management, 7: 96.

Okwoche, V. A., E. P. Ejembi and C. P. O. Obinne. 2011. Professional Competencies Perceived to be Important and Needed by Female and Male Agricultural Extension Agents: A Study from Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2: 121-26.

Oladele, O. and S. Tekena. 2010. Factors influencing agricultural extension officers’ knowledge on practice and marketing of organic agriculture in North West Province, South Africa. Life Science Journal, 7: 91-98.

Oladele, O. I. 2011. Knowledge Levels and Perceived Effect of Climate Change on Extension Delivery in North West Province, South Africa. Journal of Agricultural & Food Information, 12: 91-101.

Olatunji, S., F. Onumadu and C. Ifeanyi. 2015. Job performance and job satisfaction of agricultural extension agents in Rivers State Agricultural Development Project (ADP). Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, 8`: 50-55.

Omran, E.-S. E. 2017. Land and Groundwater Assessment for Agricultural Development in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. Springer International Publishing. Place Published. pp.165-209.

Ozor, N. and C. E. Nnaji. 2011. The role of extension in agricultural adaptation to climate change in Enugu State, Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development 3: 42-50.

Parry, M., N. Arnell, T. McMichael, R. Nicholls, P. Martens, S. Kovats, M. Livermore, C. Rosenzweig, A. Iglesias and G. Fischer. 2001. Millions at risk: defining critical climate change threats and targets. Global Environmental Change, 11: 181-83.

Rickards, L., J. Alexandra, C. Jolley and T. Frewer. 2018. Final report: review of agricultural extension. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR). available at:

Rymbai, D. and F. M. Sheikh. 2018. The insight of agricultural adaptation to climate change: a case of rice growers in Eastern Himalaya, India. International Journal of Biometeorology, 62: 1833-45.

Santos, F., A. Urbina, J. Abad, R. López, C. Toledo and A. J. Fernández Romero. 2020. Environmental and economical assessment for a sustainable Zn/air battery. Chemosphere, 250: 126273.

Schlenker, W. and M. J. Roberts. 2006. Estimating the Impact of Climate Change on Crop Yields: The Importance of Non-Linear Temperature Effects. SSRN Electronic Journal.

Shakoor, U., A. Saboor, I. Ali and A. Mohsin. 2011. Impact of climate change on agriculture: empirical evidence from arid region. Pak. J. Agri. Sci, 48: 327-33.

Siam, G. and S. Fayad, . 2009. The Impact of Climate Change on the Status of Agriculture and Food in Egypt - Development Partners for Research, Consultation and Training - Climate Change Conference and its Impact on Egypt Cairo Place Published.

Singh, C., J. Daron, A. Bazaz, G. Ziervogel, D. Spear, J. Krishnaswamy, M. Zaroug and E. Kituyi. 2017. The utility of weather and climate information for adaptation decision-making: current uses and future prospects in Africa and India. Climate and Development, 10: 389-405.

UNFCCC. 2010. Second national communication”, Egyptain Environmental Affairs Agency. Place Published.

United Nations. 2015. Transforming our world: the 2030 agenda for sustainable development. United Nations. General Assembly. Online Place Published.

Vaghefi, N., M. N. Shamsudin, A. Radam and K. A. Rahim. 2015. Impact of climate change on food security in Malaysia: economic and policy adjustments for rice industry. Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences, 13: 19-35.

van Duinen, R., T. Filatova, P. Geurts and A. van der Veen. 2014. Coping with drought risk: empirical analysis of farmers’ drought adaptation in the south-west Netherlands. Regional Environmental Change, 15: 1081-93.

Yiran, G. A. B. and L. C. Stringer. 2017. Adaptation to Climatic Hazards in the Savannah Ecosystem: Improving Adaptation Policy and Action. Environmental Management, 60: 665-78.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.33687/ijae.010.01.3892


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Tamer Gamal Ibrahim Mansour

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.