Training Need Assessment of rice farmers regarding weeds and their management in Punjab, Pakistan

Imran Riaz, Ijaz Ashraf, Khalid Mehmood Ch., Asif Tanveer


The training needs of rice growers in Punjab, Pakistan were assessed regarding the production technology used in growing rice. Total 332 rice growers were selected through random sampling technique from tehsil Nowshera Virkan, district Gujranwala and interviewed accordingly through a face-to-face interview technique. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Findings indicated that farmers had adequate awareness about the weeds and their management. The demonstration was the most effective technique as used by the extension field staff to create awareness among farmers about weeds management. Social media and electronic media use were appeared least effective. This indicates that farmers were more convenient with the traditional technique of creating awareness. Regarding training needs, Rice farmers had maximum training needs regarding chemical control and identification of rice weeds. Resourceful, cost-effective, and timely weed management options are pivotal to making rice crop profitable. Thus, Agriculture Department, Punjab should be aimed at empowering the rice farmers technically, to train them through both conventional approaches (i.e. demonstration plots) and technology-led approaches (i.e. Information Communication Technologies (ICTs), social media and electronic media). 


weeds, management, chemical control, biological control, training need


Adhikari, S. P., H. Yang and H. Kim. 2019. Learning Semantic Graphics Using Convolutional Encoder-Decoder Network for Autonomous Weeding in Paddy. Frontiers in plant science, 10: 1404-04.

Ashraf, E., H. K. Sharjeel, R. Babar, M. Junaid, Q. Iqbal, R. Rasheed and N. Fatima. 2018. Perceptions of Extension Field Staff Regarding Technology Transfer through Different Extension Approaches. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 34.

Azumah, S. B., S. A. Donkoh and J. A. Awuni. 2018. The perceived effectiveness of agricultural technology transfer methods: Evidence from rice farmers in Northern Ghana. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 4: 1503798.

Bakhtawer and S. Afsheen. 2021. A cross sectional survey of knowledge, attitude and practices related to the use of insecticides among farmers in industrial triangle of Punjab, Pakistan. PloS one, 16: e0255454-e54.

Baloch, M. S., G. Hassan and T. Morimoto. 2005. Weeding techniques in transplanted and direct wet‐seeded rice in Pakistan. Weed Biology and Management, 5: 190-96.

Briscoe, J. and U. Qamar. 2009. Pakistan's Water Economy Running Dry Oxford University Press, USA.

Cartmell, D., C. L. Orr and D. B. Kelemen. 2004. Methods of information dissemination to limited-scale land owners. Oklahoma State University.

Chaudhary, R. C., D. V. Tran and R. Duffy. 2001. Speciality rices of the world: breeding, production and marketing. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

Chauhan, B. S. 2012. Weed ecology and weed management strategies for dry-seeded rice in Asia. Weed Technology, 26: 1-13.

Farooq, M., K. H. Siddique, H. Rehman, T. Aziz, D.-J. Lee and A. Wahid. 2011. Rice direct seeding: experiences, challenges and opportunities. Soil and Tillage Research, 111: 87-98.

Government of Pakistan. 2013. Economic Survey of Pakistan 2013, Finance Divisvion, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Government of Pakistan. 2021. Economic Survey of Pakistan 2020-21, Finance Divisvion, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Hussain, T. 2002. Groundwater management: a case study of Rechna Doab-Pakistan. Journal of Drainage and Water Management (Pakistan), 6: 69-76.

Ismail, S. N. F. and A. S. Abdullah. 2020. Recent Developments of Weed Management in Rice Fields. Reviews in Agricultural Science, 8: 343-53.

Jallow, M. F. A., D. G. Awadh, M. S. Albaho, V. Y. Devi and B. M. Thomas. 2017. Pesticide Knowledge and Safety Practices among Farm Workers in Kuwait: Results of a Survey. International journal of environmental research and public health, 14: 340.

Kahlown, M. A., A. Raoof, M. Zubair and W. D. Kemper. 2007. Water use efficiency and economic feasibility of growing rice and wheat with sprinkler irrigation in the Indus Basin of Pakistan. Agricultural Water Management, 87: 292-98.

Khan, A., U. Pervaiz, N. M. Khan, S. Ahmad and S. Nigar. 2009. Effectiveness of demonstration plots as extension method adopted by AKRSP for agricultural technology dissemination in District Chitral. Sarhad J. agric, 25: 313-19.

Mohanty, M., D. K. Painuli, A. K. Misra, K. K. Bandyopadhyaya and P. K. Ghosh. 2006. Estimating impact of puddling, tillage and residue management on wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) seedling emergence and growth in a rice–wheat system using nonlinear regression models. Soil and Tillage Research, 87: 119-30.

Mubushar, M., F. O. Aldosari, M. B. Baig, B. M. Alotaibi and A. Q. Khan. 2019. Assessment of farmers on their knowledge regarding pesticide usage and biosafety. Saudi journal of biological sciences, 26: 1903-10.

Ozpinar, S. 2006. Effects of tillage on productivity of a winter wheat-vetch rotation under dryland Mediterranean conditions. Soil and Tillage Research, 89: 258-65.

Powles, S. B. and Q. Yu. 2010. Evolution in Action: Plants Resistant to Herbicides. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 61: 317-47.

Ramzan, M. 2003. Evaluation of various planting methods in Rice-Wheat cropping system, Punjab Pakistan. Rice Crop Report 2003- 04. PP: 4-5.

Rehman, A., L. Jingdong, A. A. Chandio, I. Hussain, S. A. Wagan and Q. U. A. Memon. 2019. Economic perspectives of cotton crop in Pakistan: A time series analysis (1970–2015) (Part 1). Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 18: 49-54.

Rehman, A., L. Jingdong, R. Khatoon, I. Hussain and M. S. Iqbal. 2016. Modern agricultural technology adoption its importance, role and usage for the improvement of agriculture. Life Science Journal, 14: 70-74.

Rehman, A., L. Jingdong, B. Shahzad, A. A. Chandio, I. Hussain, G. Nabi and M. S. Iqbal. 2015. Economic perspectives of major field crops of Pakistan: An empirical study. Pacific Science Review B: Humanities and Social Sciences, 1: 145-58.

Setia, M. S. 2016. Methodology series module 3: Cross-sectional studies. Indian journal of dermatology, 61: 261.

Singh, G. 2008. Integrated weed management in direct-seeded rice. In Y. Singh, V.P. Singh, B. Chauhan, A. Orr, A.M. Mortimer, D.E. Johnson and B. Hardy eds., Direct Seeding of Rice and Weed Management in the Irrigated Rice-Wheat Cropping System of the Indo-Gangetic Plains. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Philippines: Directorate of Experiment Station, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar. 161-175.

Sureshkumar, R., Y. A. Reddy and S. Ravichandran. 2016. Effect of weeds and their management in transplanted rice–a review. International Journal of Research in Applied, Natural and Social Sciences, 4: 165-80.

Usman, M., K. M. Ch, I. Ashraf and A. Tanveer. 2021a. Factors impeding the adoption of weed management practices in four cropping systems of the Punjab, Pakistan. International Journal of Agricultural Extension, 9.

Usman, M., K. M. Ch, I. Ashraf and A. Tanveer. 2021b. Influencing factors of adoption of weed management techniques among farmers in different cropping systems of the punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 58: 1081-90.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.33687/ijae.009.03.3783


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Imran Riaz

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.