Historical Forms of Tourism Gradual Transnationalization and the Perpetuum Mobile Behind it

Denis Ushakov, Oksana V. Novosad, Romana Mikhel, Romana Mikhel, Oksana V. Borysova, Diana Yu. Hryniuk


Over the past 70 years, tourism has always been at the forefront of business transnationalization, as it has consistently used all the advantages of the transnational production and distribution system, thereby creating additional competitive advantages on a truly global scale. The purpose of this study is to analyze the evolution of the international travel market, as well as to identify a number of historical stages of its development, which the market has passed on the way to establishing strong international relations and interaction. In this article, transnationalization is defined as a modern form of organizing tourism and hotel business. It was proposed directly by entrepreneurs as one of the possible solutions to classic market problems (including limited demand and factors of production). These market problems intensified in the second half of the last century, and all of them directly influenced the development of tourism. The study analyzed the driving forces of transnationalization of the tourism and hospitality sectors, taking into account the economic effect of the synergy of transnationalization. Expansion of tourist activities of the sectoral transnational corporations along with their gradual transformation into influential subject of the world economy. All of the considered in the article synergy effects from tourist business transnationalization have nearly simultaneous impact on the process of tourist services’ production.


International market; Scale effect; Direct foreign investments; Transnational corporations’; synergy

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DOI: 10.33687/ijae.009.00.3716


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