Farmers knowledge regarding safe handling and application of pesticides in rice crop

Muhammad Shoaib, Khalid Mahmood Ch., Ijaz Ashraf, Nadeem Akbar


Rice is one of the leading food crops in Pakistan and we conducted this study to explore farmers knowledge regarding the safe handling and application of pesticides on rice crop in rice growing district Shiekhupura of Punjab province. A total of 381 randomly selected rice growers were interviewed using a structured, validated and reliable interview schedule administered face-to-face. Collected data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Results revealed that 58.5% of respondents were aged between 36 and 50 years, 25.2% o had completed middle-level education,40.4% had more than 25 acres of land, 60.9% were owners of their land and 50.6% had farming experience of 6-10 years. Around 45% reported not considering wind direction while spraying and 66% used mud/soil to clean their hands post-pesticide application. Around 73,2, 66.1 and 73.2% reported the use of goggles, 66.7% trouser suit, 66.1% face masks, 65.4% used boots and 6.6% used overalls for their safety.  This study indicates an average level of knowledge and use of Personnel protective equipment (PPEs) against pesticides. However, there is still room to create awareness among those who are not utilizing the PPEs. Along with the dissemination of advisory services through group meetings, and the dissemination of information related to the safe use of pesticides the potential of social media platform and mainstream media can be used. 


Knowledge level; Handling; Application; Pesticides; PPE; Rice


Abbas, N., Shad, S.A. and Ismail, M. 2014. Resistance to conventional and new insecticides in houseflies (Diptera: Muscidae) from poultry facilities in Punjab, Pakistan. Journal of Economic Entomology, 108(02): 826.

Allahyari, M.S., Chizari, M. and Homaee, M. 2008. Perceptions of Iranian agricultural extension professionals toward sustainable agriculture concepts. Journal of Agricultural and Social Science, 4(3):101-106.

Aryal K.K., Neupane, S., Lohani, G.R., Jors, E,, Neupane, D., Khanal, P.R., Jha, B.K., Dhimal, M., Shrestha, B.M., Bista, B., Poudyal, A. and Karki, K.B. 2013. Health Effects of Pesticide among Vegetable Farmers and the Adaptation Level of Integrated Pest Management Program in Nepal, 2013. Kathmandu, Nepal: Nepal Health Research Council, 2016.

Carpenter, W. S., Lee, B. C., Gunderson, P. D. and Stueland, D. T. 2002. Assessment of personal protective equipment use among Midwestern farmers, American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 42 (3):236-247.

Damalas, C. A., Koutroubas, S. D., Abdollahzadeh, G. 2019. Drivers of personal safety in agriculture: a case study with pesticide operators, Agriculture 9(2):1-13.

Damalas, C.A. and Hashemi, S.M. 2010. Pesticide risk perception and use of personal protective equipment among young and old cotton growers in northern Greece, Agrociencia. 44:363–371.

Damalas, C.A., Georgiou, E.B. and Theodorou M.G. 2006. Pesticide use and safety practices among Greek tobacco farmers: a survey. International Journal of Environment and Health Research, 16:339-48

Dasgupta, S., C. Meisne and Huq. M. 2007. A pinch or point? Evidence of pesticide overuse in Bangladesh. Journal of Agriculture Economics, 58:91-114.

Diomedi, B. Z. and Nauges, C. 2016. Pesticide-handling practices: the case of coffee growers in Papua New Guinea, Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 60 (1):112-129.

Government of Pakistan, 2023. Economic Survey of Pakistan. Ministry of Finance, Planning and Development Department, Islamabad. Pakistan.

Government of Pakistan. 2012. Agriculture: Economic Survey of Pakistan. Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.

Gupta, D. C., K.V. Gupta., P. Nema and Patel, R. J. 2012. Gender differences in knowledge, attitude and practices of pesticides. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, 3(3): 632-639.

Hashemi, S.M., R. Rostami and Damalas C.A. 2012. Pesticide use and risk perceptions among farmers in southwest Iran. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment. 18:456-470.

Karunamoorthi, K., Mohammad, M. and Wassie, F. 2012. Knowledge and practices of farmers with reference to pesticide management: Implications on human health. Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health, 67: 109-116.

Khan, M. and Damalas, D.A. 2015. Factors preventing the adoption of alternatives to chemical pest control among Pakistani cotton farmers. International Journal of Pest Management. 61: 9-16.

Khan. A.M. and Akram. 2012. Farmers perception of extension methods used by extension personnel for dissemination of new agricultural technologies in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 28(3):511-520.

Kumari, D., A. J. Sebastian and John, S. 2019. Human and ecological risk assessment: An International pesticide handling practices and health risks among the apple orchard workers in Western Indian Himalayan region among the apple orchard workers in Western Indian,” Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 25:1-15.

Lee Walton, C. E. LePrevost, L. Linnan, A. Sanchez-Birkhead and Mooney K. 2017. Benefits, facilitators, barriers, and strategies to improve pesticide protective behaviors: insights from farmworkers in North Carolina tobacco fields. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(7):677.

Liu, E.M. and J. Huang. 2013. Risk preferences and pesticide use by cotton farmers in China. Journal of Development Economics, 103:202-215.

Rijal, J.P., Regmi R., Ghimire, R., Puri, K. D, Gyawanly and Poudel, S. 2018. Farmers’ knowledge on pesticide safety and pest management practices: a case study of vegetable. Agriculture, 8(1):11

Sapkota, K. R., Sapkota, S., Katuwal, K. 2020. Pesticides handling practices among potato growers in Kavrepalanchok, Nepal, Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 3(1):77-87.

Sarker, M.A., Itohara, Y. 2009. Farmers' perception about the extension services and extension workers: the case of organic agriculture extension program by PROSHIKA. American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences, 4:332-337.

Van Den Berg, H., Hii J. and Soares, A. 2011. Status of pesticide management in the practice of vector control: a global survey in countries at risk of malaria or other major vector-borne diseases, Malaria Journal, 10:125.

Wilson, C. and Tisdell, C. 2001. Analysis. Why farmers continue to use pesticides despite environmental, health and sustainability costs. Ecological Economics,39:449-462.

Yassin, M.M., Abu Mourad, T. A. and Safi, J. M. 2002. Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, and Toxicity Symptoms Associated with Pesticide Use Among Farm Workers in the Gaza Strip. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 59:387-394.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.33687/ijae.011.03.3672


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Shoaib

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.