Comparative study of different organic mulches for increased wheat productivity district Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan

Ahmad Raza, Muhammad Nawaz, Muhammad U. Chattha, Imran Khan, Muhammad B. Chattha, Mina Kharal, Faqir H. Anjum, Fiaz Hussain, Muhammad M. Iqbal, Muhammad T. Aslam, Muhammad Z. Amin, Muhammad U. Hassan


Weeds are major threat to global wheat production and cause serious threat to food security. Likewise, water scarcity is also a major threat to food production and its intensity is continuously soaring up across the globe. Organic mulches have potential to reduce weeds growth and conserve the soil moisture thus ensures the better crop growth and yield. Therefore, present study was conducted to compare the performance of different organic mulches in improving wheat growth and productivity. The study was comprised of different organic mulches; M1= No mulch (control) M2= maize straw mulch, M3= wheat straw mulch, M4= sorghum straw mulch and M5= rice straw mulch and three nitrogen levels N1 = 90 kg, N2 = 120 kg and N3= 150 kg/ha. The results indicated that both organic mulches and N rates had significant impact on growth, and yield traits. The maximum leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR), productive tillers (307 m-2), grains/spike (46.22), 1000 grain weight (42.33 g) biological yield (13.76 t/ha) and grain yield 4.75 t/ha was obtained with sorghum straw mulch and minimum productive tillers (255.33 m-2), grains/spike (36.22), biological yield (11.46 t/ha) and grain yield (3.59 t/ha) was recorded in no mulch (control). Among nitrogen levels maximum productive tillers (290.6 m-2), grains/spike (42.80), 1000 grain weight (40.65 g), biological yield (13.44 t/ha) and grain yield (4.32 t/ha) was obtained with 150 kg/ha N and minimum productive tillers (274 m-2), grains/spike (38.13), 1000 grain weight (36.94 g) biological yield (11.98 t/ha) and grain yield (3.90 t/ha) was obtained with 90 N kg/ha. Thus, farmers can use sorghum straw mulch and N (150 kg ha-1) to improve the wheat productivity. However, farmers must be educated by government institute and adoptive research farms in order to understand and adaption of this approach.


Faisalabad; Mulch; Productivity; Wheat; Weeds


Abbas, M., A. Sheikh, M. Shahbaz and A. Afzaal. 2007. Food security through wheat productivity in Pakistan. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 23: 1239.

Ali, M. A., M. Aslam, H. M. Hammad, G. Abbas, M. Akram and Z. Ali. 2009. Effect of nitrogen application timings on wheat yield under thal environment. J. Agric. Res, 47: 31-35.

Ali, N., S. Durrani, M. Adeel Shabaz, A. Hafeez, H. Ameer, M. Ishfaq, M. R. Fayyaz, A. Rehman and A. Waheed. 2018. Effect of Different Nitrogen Levels on Growth, Yield and Yield Contributing Attributes of Wheat. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 9: 595-602.

Anjum, F. M., I. Ahmad, M. S. Butt, M. A. Sheikh and I. Pasha. 2005. Amino acid composition of spring wheats and losses of lysine during chapati baking. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 18: 523-32.

Aslam, M. M., M. Zeeshan, A. Irum, M. Umair Hassan, S. Ali, R. Hussain, P. M. Adnan Ramzani and M. Farhan Rashid. 2015. Influence of Seedling Age and Nitrogen Rates on Productivity of Rice ( Oryza sativa L.): A Review. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 06: 1361-69.

Chapman, H. D. and P. F. Pratt. 1962. Methods of Analysis for Soils, Plants and Waters. Soil Science, 93: 68.

Chattha, M., M. Chattha, I. Khan, U. Anwar, M. Hassan, M. Nawaz, S. Anjum, A. Mahmood and S. Mirza. 2017. Effect of seeding rate and seed soaking duration on productivity of relay-intercropped wheat in cotton. Pakistan Journal of Science, 69: 190.

Chattha, M. U., M. U. Hassan, I. Khan, M. B. Chattha, I. Ashraf, W. Ishque, M. U. Farooq, M. Usman and M. Kharal. 2017. Effect of Different Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer Levels in Combination with Nitrogen and Phosphorus Solubilizing Inoculants on the Growth and Yield of Mung bean. Pakistan Journal of Life & Social Sciences, 15.

Chattha, M. U., M. U. Hassan, I. Khan, M. B. Chattha, A. Mahmood, M. U. Chattha, M. Nawaz, M. N. Subhani, M. Kharal and S. Khan. 2017. Biofortification of Wheat Cultivars to Combat Zinc Deficiency. Frontiers in plant science, 8: 281-81.

Depar, N., J. Shah and M. Memon. 2014. Effect of organic mulching on soil moisture conservation and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Pakistan Journal of Agriculture, Agricultural Engineering and Veterinary Sciences, 30: 54-66.

Government of Pakistan. 2020. Economic survey of Pakistan. 2019-20. Economic Advisors Wing, Ministry of Finance. Government of Pakistan, Islamabad. Place Published.

Hassan, M. U., M. Aamer, M. Nawaz, A. Rehman, T. Aslam, U. Afzal, B. A. Shahzad, M. A. Ayub, F. Ahmed, M. Qiaoying, S. Qitao and H. Guoqin. 2021. Agronomic Bio-Fortification of Wheat to Combat Zinc Deficiency in Developing Countries. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 34.

Hassan, M. U., M. Aamer, M. Umer Chattha, T. Haiying, I. Khan, M. F. Seleiman, A. Rasheed, M. Nawaz, A. Rehman, M. Talha Aslam, A. Afzal and G. Huang. 2021. Sugarcane Distillery Spent Wash (DSW) as a Bio-Nutrient Supplement: A Win-Win Option for Sustainable Crop Production. Agronomy, 11: 183.

Hassan, M. U., M. Aamer, M. Umer Chattha, T. Haiying, B. Shahzad, L. Barbanti, M. Nawaz, A. Rasheed, A. Afzal, Y. Liu and H. Guoqin. 2020. The Critical Role of Zinc in Plants Facing the Drought Stress. Agriculture, 10: 396.

Hassan, M. U., M. U. Chattha, L. Barbanti, M. B. Chattha, A. Mahmood, I. Khan and M. Nawaz. 2019. Combined cultivar and harvest time to enhance biomass and methane yield in sorghum under warm dry conditions in Pakistan. Industrial Crops and Products, 132: 84-91.

Hassan, M. U., M. U. Chattha, L. Barbanti, A. Mahmood, M. B. Chattha, I. Khan, S. Mirza, S. A. Aziz, M. Nawaz and M. Aamer. 2020. Cultivar and seeding time role in sorghum to optimize biomass and methane yield under warm dry climate. Industrial Crops and Products, 145: 111983.

Hassan, M. U., M. U. Chattha, I. Khan, M. B. Chattha, L. Barbanti, M. Aamer, M. M. Iqbal, M. Nawaz, A. Mahmood, A. Ali and M. T. Aslam. 2020. Heat stress in cultivated plants: nature, impact, mechanisms, and mitigation strategies—a review. Plant Biosystems - An International Journal Dealing with all Aspects of Plant Biology, 155: 211-34.

Hassan, M. U., M. U. Chattha, A. Mahmood and S. T. Sahi. 2018. Performance of sorghum cultivars for biomass quality and biomethane yield grown in semi-arid area of Pakistan. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25: 12800-07.

Hassan, M. U., M. U. Chattha, A. Ullah, I. Khan, A. Qadeer, M. Aamer, A. U. Khan, F. Nadeem and T. A. Khan. 2019. Agronomic biofortification to improve productivity and grain Zn concentration of bread wheat. Int. J. Agric. Biol, 21: 615-20.

Hussain, S., F.-u. Hassan, M. Rasheed, S. Ali and M. Ahmed. 2014. Effects of allelopathic crop water extracts and their combinations on weeds and yield of rainfed wheat. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment, 12: 161-67.

Jodaugienė, D., R. Pupalienė, M. Urbonienė, V. Pranckietis and I. Pranckietienė. 2006. The impact of different types of organic mulches on weed emergence. Agronomy Research, 4: 197-201.

Khurshid, K., M. Iqbal, M. S. Arif and A. Nawaz. 2006. Effect of tillage and mulch on soil physical properties and growth of maize. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 8: 593-96.

Kutman, U. B., B. Yildiz and I. Cakmak. 2010. Effect of nitrogen on uptake, remobilization and partitioning of zinc and iron throughout the development of durum wheat. Plant and Soil, 342: 149-64.

Liaqat, A., Q. M. U. Din and M. Ali. 2003. Effect of different doses of nitrogen fertilizer on the yield of wheat. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 5: 438-39.

Mckenzie, R. 2002. Wheat nutrition and fertilizer requirement. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 35.

Mohsin, A., J. Ahmad, A. Ahmad, R. Ikram and K. Mubeen. 2012. Effect of nitrogen application through different combinations of urea and farm yard manure on the performance of spring maize (Zea mays L.). J. Anim. Plant Sci, 22: 195-98.

Muhsin, M., M. Nawaz, I. Khan, M. B. Chattha, S. Khan, M. T. Aslam, M. M. Iqbal, M. Z. Amin, M. A. Ayub, U. Anwar, M. U. Hassan and M. U. Chattha. 2021. Efficacy of Seed Size to Improve Field Performance of Wheat under Late Sowing Conditions. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 34.

Pakdel, P., A. Tehranifar, H. Nemati, A. Lakzian and M. Kharrazi. 2013. Effect of different mulching materials on soil properties under semi-arid conditions in northeastern Iran. Wudpecker Journal of Agricultural Research, 2: 80-85.

Shehzad, M. A., M. A. Nadeem, M. A. Sarwar, G. M. Naseer-ud-Din and F. Ilahi. 2012. Comparative efficacy of different post-emergence herbicides in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 49: 27-34.

Singh, G. 2008. Integrated weed management in direct-seeded rice. In Y. Singh, V.P. Singh, B. Chauhan, A. Orr, A.M. Mortimer, D.E. Johnson and B. Hardy eds., Direct Seeding of Rice and Weed Management in the Irrigated Rice-Wheat Cropping System of the Indo-Gangetic Plains. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Philippines: Directorate of Experiment Station, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar. 161-175. Place Published.

Solangi, A., S. Tunio, G. Jamro, M. Keerio, A. Soomro and M. Kandhro. 2018. Allelopathic Efficacy of Sorghum Mulches and Water Extract Concentrations on Weed Suppression and Yield Enhancement in Wheat. Sindh University Research Journal-SURJ (Science Series), 50: 241-48.

Steel, R. G. D. and J. H. Torrie. 1960. Principles and procedures of statistics. Principles and procedures of statistics.

Teame, G., A. Tsegay and B. Abrha. 2017. Effect of Organic Mulching on Soil Moisture, Yield, and Yield Contributing Components of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). International Journal of Agronomy, 2017: 1-6.

Yang, Y.-m., X.-j. Liu, W.-q. Li and C.-z. Li. 2006. Effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production in desalinized soil in Heilonggang region of North China. Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B, 7: 858-67.

Yousaf, M., S. Fahad, A. Shah, M. Shaaban, M. J. Khan, S. Sabiel, S. Ali, Y. Wang and K. A. Osman. 2014. The effect of nitrogen application rates and timings of first irrigation on wheat growth and yield. Int. J. Agric. Innovat. Res, 2: 645-65.

Zain, M., I. Khan, M. Chattha, R. Qadri, S. Anjum, M. Hassan, A. Mahmood and M. Ilyas. 2017. Foliar applied thiourea at different growth stages modulated late sown wheat. Pakistan Journal of Science, 69: 39.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.33687/ijae.009.03.3598


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. Muhammad Bilal Chattha, Ahmad Raza, Muhammad Nawaz, Muhammad Umer Chattha, Imran Khan, Mina Kharal, Faqir Hussain Anjum, Fiaz Hussain, Muhammad Mahmood Iqbal, Muhammad Talha Aslam, Muhammad Zubair Amin, Muhammad Umair Hassan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.