Information deficiency among farmers regarding vegetable production practices in peri-urban areas of the Punjab-Pakistan

Gulfam Hassan, Ijaz Ashraf, Najam Ul Hassan, Majid Ali, Imran Khalid, Ejaz Ashraf, Hammad Raza, Rana T. Husnain, Shafiq-ur-Rehman Zia, Salman Asghar


This study aimed at exploring the information deficiency among vegetables growers regarding production practices of vegetables. Total 208 vegetable growers, who were selected randomly participated in the study as respondents. The data were collected on structured questionnaire through face-to-face interview technique. The analysis of the data indicated that the farmers had diverse demographic conditions, but primarily with ordinary level of education (52.4% were illiterate), small land holdings and over reliance on farming sources to generate income (77.9%). Cultivation of vegetables was observed on small land holdings whereas 87% aimed at not only commercializing the produce abut also meet the domestic needs. In order to meet information needs, important for the vegetable’s cultivation, neighbour farmers were the most preferred information source (59.61%) while agriculture department (10.57%) and agriculture helpline (8.48%) were the least. Farmers had high level of information deficiency regarding Fertilizer application (x̅=4.38), Seed rate (x̅=4.25), Insect’s pests/diseases identification (4.01) and medium level deficiency regarding selection of Varieties (x̅=3.87), Insects pets management (x̅=3.53) and Harvesting (x̅=3.51). This is affirmed that farmers had information deficiency about the major aspects of the production and it could have impacted the production inversely. Farmers had more inclination towards traditional information sources and this could be the reason of information deficiency among farmers. This study urges more proactive role of agricultural extension department to mainstream the information delivery mechanism for the timely access and uniform delivery of required information among vegetable growers.


Vegetable production; Information deficiency; Fertilizer application; Information needs; Production practices


Adil, S. A., M. W. A. Chattha, K. Bakhsh and S. Hassan. 2007. Profitability analysis of summer vegetables by farm size. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 44: 184-88.

Adil, S. A., A. Maqsood, K. Bakhsh and S. Hassan. 2012. Forecasting demand and supply of onion in Pakistani Punjab. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 49: 205-10.

Ashraf, S., G. A. Khan, S. Ali and M. Iftikhar. 2015. Socio-economic determinants of the awareness and adoption of citrus production practices in Pakistan. Ciência Rural, 45: 1701-06.

Banjo, A. D., O. A. Lawal, O. E. Fapojuwo and E. A. Songonuga. 2003. Farmers knowledge and perception of horticultural insect pest problems in southwestern Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 2: 434-37.

Bashir, M. S. and S. A. Albarbarawi. 2011. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Self Service Technologies (SSTs): A study of attitudes towards SSTs (Internet Banking, Online Shopping and Self-Check-In Machine at the Airports) and the influence of new technologies (smart phones and tablet computers): (Dissertation). Retrieved from}.

Chaudhry, K., S. Muhammad, A. Saghir and I. Ashraf. 2008. Rural women’s access to various sources of information in tehsil Faisalabad. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 18: 99-101.

Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 212. World urbanization prospects, the 2011 revision. Population Division, United Nations, New York.

Elizabeth, S. and D. Y. Zira. 2009. Awareness and effectiveness of vegetable technology information packages by vegetable farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 4: 065-70.

FAO. 2000. Defining the peri-urban: rural-urban linkages and institutional connections. 0251-1894, 8- 26.

Fitz-Gibbon, C. T. and L. L. Morris. 1987. How to design a program evaluation Sage.

Gebru, B., M. Yared and N. Gebremichael. 2017. Sources of information and information seeking behavior of smallholder farmers of Tanqa Abergelle Wereda, central zone of Tigray, Ethiopia. Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, 9: 47-52.

Government of Pakistan. 2006. Pre-feasibility study for fruit and vegetable zones in Karachi, Multan, Faisalabad, Swat and Quetta.

Government of Pakistan. 2012. Economic survey of Pakistan. Economic Advisor’s Wing, Finance Division, Islamabad. .

Hall, J. N., S. Moore, S. B. Harper and J. W. Lynch. 2009. Global Variability in Fruit and Vegetable Consumption. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 36: 402-09.e5.

Khokhar, M. 2014. Production status of major vegetables in Pakistan, their problems and suggestions. Agric. Corner, 9.

Khooharo, A., R. Memon and M. Lakho. 2008. An assessment of farmers’ level of knowledge about proper usage of pesticides in Sindh Province of Pakistan. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 24: 531-39.

Knapton, S. 2014. Healthy diet means 10 portions of fruit and vegetables per day, not five. (Online)

Meitei, L. S. and T. Devi. 2009. Farmers information needs in rural Manipur: an assessment. Annals of Library and Information Studies, 56: 35-40.

Memon, N. 2013. Vegetable Exports from Pakistan. Available on: http://www. foodjournal. pk/Jan-Feb-2013/PDF-JanFeb-2013/Exclusive-article-Dr-Noor. pdf.

Midmore, D. J. and H. G. P. Jansen. 2003. Supplying vegetables to Asian cities: is there a case for peri-urban production? Food Policy, 28: 13-27.

Otitoju, G., H. Ene-Obong and O. Otitoju. 2014. Macro and micro nutrient composition of some indigenous green leafy vegetables in south-east zone Nigeria. Journal of Food Processing & Technology, 5: 1.

Patil, M., S. Patil, R. Rahane and S. Bhosale. 2012. Effect of technology adoption on onion production in Maharashtra. Trends in Life Sciences, 1(3): 53-55.

Rao, A. and L. Rao. 2007. Carotenoids and human health. Pharmacological Research, 55: 207-16.

Shaheen, S., M. Sial, G. Sarwar and R. Munir. 2011. Nexus between human capital and technical efficiency of cauliflower growers in soon valley, Punjab: A panel data analysis. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1: 129-35.

Stangeland, T., S. F. Remberg and K. A. Lye. 2009. Total antioxidant activity in 35 Ugandan fruits and vegetables. Food Chemistry, 113: 85-91.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.33687/ijae.009.01.3494


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Gulfam Hassan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.