Identifying root causes of conflicts at farm level and conflicts resolution strategies in Punjab, Pakistan
The present study was conducted in three districts of the Punjab province. Muzaffargarh district from southern Punjab, Gujranwala district from center, and Attock district from North were selected randomly from three different zones (South, North, and Central Punjab) of Punjab, Pakistan. In each district, 200 farm families (100 male and 100 female) were selected purposively (involved in the conflict) for data collection rationally with help of key informants hence the total sample size was 600 in three selected districts. A well-planned and well-structured interview schedule was prepared for the collection of data. Two focus group discussions were planned for an in-depth discussion in each district. Each focus group consisted of 8 to10 members. Results indicate that passageway among agricultural land (x̄= 3.73), water distribution at farm level (x̄= 3.64), crop destroyed by the animals (x̄= 3.47), and burning of crops (x̄= 3.34) were the major causes of conflicts at the farm level as perceived by the respondents. Wastage of money and time (x̄= 3.74), affects daily routine life (x̄= 3.72), affects child education (x̄= 3.63), affects the marriage of the family members (x̄= 3.52) and less farm production (x̄= 3.32) and family break up (x̄= 3.27) were the consequences of farm-level conflicts. Participation of elder family member (x̄=3.69/5.00), negotiation among the conflicted parties (x̄=3.49/5.00), use of local politicians (x̄=3.41/5.00), social relationship (x̄=3.35/5.00), involvement of informal judiciary (panchayat) (x̄=3.20/5.00) were the modalities used by the local communities for conflicts resolution as perceived by the respondents. It was recommended that local panchayat and local administrative bodies should be promoted in the conflict management process.
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