Assessment of Trypanocidal Drug Resistance In Tsetse Infested Areas of Guraferda District, Bench Maji Zone, South Western Ethiopia

Abiyu Tadele, Tsegaye Teklemariam, Mulugeta Abera, Ayele Woldemeskel


The South Western region of Ethiopia is affected by both tsetse and non-tsetse transmitted trypanosomosis with a significant impact on livestock productivity. The control of trypanosomosis in Ethiopia relies on either curative or prophylactic treatment of animals with diminazene aceturate (DA) or isometamidium chloride (ISMM). This study was conducted from March - June 2017, where tsetse infestation was high in four purposively selected rural kebeles of Guraferda district of Bench Maji Zone, South Western Ethiopia. The main objective of this study was to assess trypanocidal drug resistance under natural grazing systems. Resistance to trypanocidal drug was determined through longitudinal studies. In this study 200 cattle were used for experiment; 50 cattle from each rural kebeles (25 treated and 25 control group). However, 16 animals 5 from control and 11 from threated group were left due to sale of the animals by the owners, refusal of owners to allow their animals during sample collection and inability to reach the study kebeles because of heavy rain and presence of mud. In the present study, 25 cattle were treated with isometamidium and 25 cattle were left untreated and examined regularly at two weeks interval for the presence of trypanosomes. During the experimental period, all infections were monitored in both groups and treated with diminazene (7 mg/kg) body weight. Resistance to isometamidium was assessed by comparing cumulative incidence in both treated and control group using the test relative risk reduction and deducting the rate of treatment failure. Resistance to diminizene was assessed through the rate of treatment failure observed at two week post treatment in the control group. In both cases the threshold of 25% treatment failure was adopted as criteria of presence of chemo-resistance. The present study revealed that the prevalence of trypanosome infection was (76.8%) in control and (23.2%) in treated group. The trypanosome species in the area was predominantly due to T.Congolense (76.8%). This indicates there was a resistance of trypanosome species for the treatment with the recommended dose of diaminazine (7mg/kg) and isometamidium (1mg/kg) body weight. Thus, it is crucial to develop an adequate prophylactic measurements to reduce the prevalence of trypanosome infection there by reducing tsetse fly populations in the study areas. 


Diminazene aceturate, Guraferda district, Hazard ratio, Isometamidium, Prevalence rate


Abebe, G., Jobre, Y., (1996). Trypanosomiasis: a threat to cattle production in Ethiopia. Rѐvue de Mѐdecine Vѐtѐrinarie, 147, 897-902.

Afework, Y., Clausen, P.H., Abebe, G., Tilahun, G. & Mehlitz D. (2000). Multiple-drug resistant Trypanosoma congolense populations in village cattle of Metekel district, Northwest Ethiopia. Acta Trop. 76, 231-238.

Belay H., (2018). Drivers of Land Use/Land Cover Change in the Guraferda District of Bench Maji Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia. Research & Reviews: Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 6(1), 52-62.

Codjia, V., Mulatu, W., Majiwa, P.A.O., Leak, S.G.A., Rowlands, G.J. & Authie E. (1993). Epidemiology of bovine trypanosomosis in the Ghibe Valley Southwest Ethiopia: occurrence of populations of Trypanosoma congolense resistant to diminazene, isometamidium and homidium. Acta Trop. 53, 151-163.

Dagnachew, S., Sangwan, A.K. & Abebe, G. (2005). Epidemiology of bovine trypanosomosis in the Abay (Blue Nile) basin areas of Northwest Ethiopia. Revue et Médecine Véterinarie, 58, 151-157.

Delespaux, V., Geysen, D., Van den Bossche, P. and Geerts, S. (2008). Molecular tools for the rapid detection of drug resistance in animal trypanosomes. Trends Parasitol. 24, 236-242.

Dereje A. & T. Mossie. (2017). Prevalence of Bovine Trypanosomosis and Farmers' Perception of the Disease and Its Management in Guangua and Dangila Districts. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 7(7),1-10.

Eisler, M. C., Brandt, J., Bauer, B., clausen, P.H., Delespaux, V., Holmes, P.H., Ilemobade, A.,Machila, N., Mbwambo, H., Mcdermott, J.,Mehlitz, D., Murilla, G., Ndung'u, J.M., Peregrine, A.S., Sidibe, I., Sinyangwet L. & Geerts, S. (2001). Standardized tests in mice and cattle for detection of drug resistance in tsetse transmitted trypanosomes of Africa in domestic Cattle. Veterinary parasitology, 97, 171-183.

Geerts, S., Delespaux, V., Brandt, J., Elyn, R. & Eisler M. (2002). Monitoring the correct use of Isomethamedium by farmers and veterinary assistants in Eastern Province of Zambia using the Isomethamedium-ELISA. Vet. Parasitol., 110, 117-122.

Geysen D, Delespaux V. & Geerts S. (2003). PCR-RFLP using Ssu-rDNA amplification as identification of animal trypanosomes; a review and perspectives. Vet Parasitology, 109, 213-231.

Ian, M., Peter H. & Michael A. (2004).The Trypanosomosis. CABI publishing, 23, 431- 458.

John P. K., (2005). The trouble with trypanocidal drug. An easy of Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign. Commission of the African Union. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. P.7

Kebede, N. & A. Animut, (2009). Trypanosomosis of cattle in selected districts of Awi zone, northwestern Ethiopia. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 41. 1353-1356.

Mekuria, S. & F. Gadissa, (2011). Survey on bovine trypanosomosis and its vector in Metekel and Awi zones of Northwest Ethiopia. Acta Tropica, 117, 146-151.

Miruk, A., Hagos, A., Yacob, H.T., Asnake, F. & Basu, A.K. (2008). 'Prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis and trypanocidal drug sensitivity studies on Trypanosoma congolense in Wolyta and Dawero zones of southern Ethiopia', Veterinary Parasitology, 152, 141-147.

Mulugeta, W., Wilkes, J., Mulatu, W., Majiwa, P.A.O., Masake, R. & Peregrine, A.S. (1997). Long-term occurrence of Trypanosoma congolense resistant to diminazene, Isometamidium and Homidium in cattle at Ghibe, Ethiopia. Acta Trop, 64, 205-217.

Murray M., Murray P.K. & Mcintyre W.I.M. (1977). An improved parasitological technique for the diagnosis of African trypanosomosis. Trans. R. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg., 71, 325-326.

Rowlands G.J., Leak S.G.A., Peregrine A.S., Nagda S.M., Mulatu W. & D'ieteren G.D.M. (2001). The incidence of new and the prevalence of recurrent trypanosome infection in cattle in Southwest Ethiopia exposed to a high challenge with the drug-resistant parasite. Acta trop., 79, 149-163.

Selamawi, (2016). A cross-sectional study on the apparent density of tsetse flies and the prevalence of bovine Trypanosomosis. Global Journal of Medicine and Surgery, 10(4), 151-155.

Shimelis Dagnachew, A.K. Sangwan and Getachew Abebe, (2005). Epidemiology of Bovine Trypanosomosis in the Abay (Blue Nile) Basin Areas of Northwest Ethiopia. Revue Élev. Méd. vét. Pays trop., 58(3), 151-157.

Shimelis D., B. Tsegaye, A. Awukew, M. Tilahun, H. Ashenafi, T. Rowan, G. Abebe, D. J. Barry, G. Terefe & B. M. Goddeeris, (2017). Prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis and assessment of trypanocidal drug resistance in tsetse infested and non-tsetse infested areas of Northwest Ethiopia. Parasite Epidemiology and Control, 2, 0-49.

Shimelis, D., Arun, K.S. & Getachew, A. (2008). Assessment of trypanocidal drug resistance in cattle of the Abay (Blue Nile) Basin areas of Northwest Ethiopia. Ethiopian Veterinary Journal, 12, 45-59.

Shimels, D., Sangwan, A. & Getachew, A. (2005). Epidemiology of bovine trypanosomosis in Abay (Blue Nile) basin areas of Northwest Ethiopia, Revue Élev. Méd. vét. Pays trop, 58, 151-157.

Simbarashe, C., Tanguy, M., Boniface, N., Peter, V., Jan V. & Vincent, D., (2011). High prevalence of drug resistance in animal trypanosomes without a history of drug exposure, 5, 1454.

Solomon S., Y. Muktar & D. Belina, (2016). A review on trypanocidal drug resistance in Ethiopia. Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology,7(4), 58-66.

Solomon, M. & Fitta, G., (2010). Survey on bovine trypanosomosis and its vector in Metekel and Awi Zones of North West Ethiopia, Acta Tropica. 117, 146-151.

Sow, A., Sidibé, I., Bengaly, Z., Marcotty, T. & Séré, M. (2012). Field detection of resistance to isometamidiumchloride and diminazene aceturate in Trypanosoma vivax from the region of the Boucledu Mouhoun in Burkina Faso. Vet. Parasitol, 187, 105-111.

Stein, J., Ayalew, W., Rege, E. D., Mulatu, W., Lemecha, H., Tadesse, Y., & Philipsson, J. (2011). Trypanosomosis and phenotypic features of four indigenous cattle breeds in an Ethiopian field study. Veterinary Parasitology, 178(1-2), 40-47.

Tatek D., B. Kidane, Z. Yilma & B. Teshome. (2018). Farmers' perception towards farm level rubber tree planting: a case study from guraferda, south-western Ethiopia. Forestry Research and Engineering: Int., Journal, 2(4), 192-196.

Teka W., Terefe D. & Wondimu A. (2012). Prevalence study of bovine trypanosomosis and tsetse density in selected villages of Arbaminch, Ethiopian, Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health, 4(3), 36-41.

Tewelde, N., Abebe, G., Eisler, M.C., McDermott, J., Greiner, M. and Afework, Y., (2004). Application of field methods to asses' isometamidium resistance of trypanosomes in cattle in western Ethiopia. Acta Trop, 90, 163-170.

Van den Bossche, P., Doran, M. & Connor, R.J. (2000). An analysis of trypanocidal drug use in the Eastern Province of Zambia. Acta Trop, 75, 247-258.

Vitouley, H.S., Sidibe, I., Bengaly, Z., Marcotty, T., Van Den Abbeele, J. & Delespaux, V. (2012). Is trypanocidal drug resistance a threat to livestock health and production in endemic areas? Food for thoughts from Sahelian goats infected by Trypanosoma vivax in Bobo Dioulasso (Burkina Faso). Vet. Parasitol, 190, 349-354.

Yismashewa, W., Ayele, W., Dugasa O., Melaku A., Tigist K., Senait, G. & Getachew D. (2017). Epidemiological Study of Cattle Trypanosomiasis in Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State, Ethiopia: Prevalence and Its Vector Density. European Journal of Biological Sciences, 9(1), 35-42.

Zeleke, G. (2011). Preliminary survey on tsetse flies and trypanosomosis at grazing fields and villages in and around the Nech Sar National Park, Southern Ethiopia. Ethiopia, Vet Journal, 15, 59-6.

Full Text: PDF XPS

DOI: 10.33687/ijae.007.02.2883


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Abiyu Tadele, Tsegaye Teklemariam, Mulugeta Abera, Ayele Woldemeskel

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.