Assessment of multi-actor stakeholders’ role in conflict resolution in Punjab, Pakistan
This study was conducted in tehsil Naushera Virkan of district Gujranwala, Punjab Pakistan with the emphasis on assessment of multi-actors roles in conflict resolution among rural people. Total 75 respondents selected through snowball sampling technique were interviewed face to face followed by two focus group discussions with the potential elite in area. The quantitative data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and qualitative data were analyzed through content analysis approach. For quantitative data, descriptive statistics (percentage, mean, standard deviation) were applied for the meaningful interpretation of data. Findings indicated that burning of crops (x̄ =3.90), loan on agricultural lands (x̄=3.89), inter-cast marriage system (x̄=3.87) and water distribution (x̄=3.76) were foremost reasons of conflicts as perceived by the respondents. Perceived conflicts had more impacts on the distribution of income (x̄=4.00), lack of unity (x̄=3.92) and farm production (x̄=3.91). Informal Judicial System (Panchayat) (x̄=4.18), Local leaders (Numberdar) (4.10), Elder family members/neighbours (x̄=4.00), Local police station (Thana) (x̄=3.95) and Politicians (x̄=3.94) were the key stakeholders playing role in conflicts resolution.
Ani, A. O., J. U. Chikaire, E. I Ogueri. & J. O. Orusha. (2015). Effects of Communal Conflicts on Agricultural Extension Services Delivery in Imo State, Nigeria. Global Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Health Sciences, 4(2),1-6.
Chaudhry, A. G., A. Ahmed, S. E. Khan & S. Hussain. (2014). Perception of Local Community and Biradari on panchayat: An Exploratory Anthropological Study of Biradari in Village Saroki, District Gujranwala, Pakistan. Advances in Anthropology, 4, 53-58
Ekong, E. (2003). An Introduction to Rural Sociology. Uyo, Nigeria: Dove Educational Publishers.
Folger J. P., M. S. Poole & R. K. Stutman. (2009). Working through Conflict Strategies for Relationships, Group and Organizations. USA: Pearson Education, Inc.
Galtung, J. (2006). Peace by Peaceful Means: Peace and Conflict, Development and Civilization. Sage Publication.
Glasius, M., Lewis, D., & Seckinelgin, H. (Eds.). (2004). Exploring civil society: political and cultural contexts. Routledge.
Gyong, J. (2007). The Structure of Communication in Peace and Conflict Resolution, Identity, Crisis and Development in Africa. B. A. Celestine, Ed. Lagos. Malhouse Press.
Haider, Z., I. Jan and W. Akram. 2017. Effect of conflict on farmers' income from tomato crop in Kurram Agency, Pakistan. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture. 33(1), 171-176.
Haro, G. G. Doyo & J. McPeak (2005). 'Linkages Between Community, Environmental, and Conflict Management: Experiences from Northem Kenya', World Development, 33 (2), 285-299.
Hejazi S. (2006). Sampling and its variants: Introduction to Research Methodology in Medical Sciences. Tehran: Islamic Azad University; 2006.
Iqbal, N. (2004, June 14-15). Affectees of Tarbela and Chotiari Dams: A struggle for social justice. United Nations Environmental Program. Addressing Existing Dams, Issue based workshop, Nairobi, (pp. 69-72).
Magsi, H., & Torre, A. (2012). Social network legitimacy and property right loopholes: Evidences from an infrastructural water project in Pakistan. Journal of Infrastructure Development, 4(2), 59-76.
Maturo, A., E. Sciarraa & A. G. S. Ventreb. (2010). Counselling: Decision Making Consensus, and Mediation. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, 1770-1776
Mehmood, C. S., & A. G. Chaudhry. (2015). Justice through Mediation: Revitalizing Informal Justice System. The explorer: Journal of Social Sciences, 1(4), 94-96.
Nformi, M. (2014). Effect of farmer-grazer conflicts on rural development: a socioeconomic analysis. Scholarly Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 4(3), 113-120.
Polit-O.,'Hara, D. & C. T. Beck. (2006). Essentials of nursing research: Methods, appraisal, and utilization. 1. Lippincott Williams Wilkins; 2006.
Qu, Y., & S. O. Cheung. (2014). Logrolling "Win-Win" Settlement in Construction Dispute Mediation: Springer International Publishing.
Robertson, A. & O. Steve. (2012). Adapting Agricultural Extension to Peacebuilding: Report of a Workshop by the National Academy of Engineering. USA
Roder, T. J. (2012). Informal justice systems: challenges and perspectives. Innovations in Rule of Law, 58.
Sabir, M., Torre, A., & Magsi, H. (2017). Land-use conflict and socio-economic impacts of infrastructure projects: the case of Diamer Bhasha Dam in Pakistan. Area Development and Policy, 2(1), 40-54.
Schellenberg, J. A. (2006). Conflict resolution. Theory, Research and Practice. State University of New York Press, Albany, NY.
Shinwari, N. A. (2015). Understanding the Informal Justice System: Opportunities and possibilities for legal pluralism in Pakistan. CAMP.
Siddik, M. A., M. A Rahman. & M. Moniruzzaman. (2018). Causes and Consequences of Land Disputes in the Coastal Area of Bangladesh. Eastern Geographer, 24(2),7-15
Walker, S., C. Archbold, & L. Herbst. (2002). Mediating Citizen Complaints Against Police Officers: a Guide for Police and Community Leaders. US Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services Washington, DC.
Yishai, Y. (2002). 'Civil Society and Democracy: The Israeli Experience. 13(3).
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2020 Sohaib Usman, Aqeela Saghir, Khalid Mehmood Ch, Ijaz Ashraf, Aisha Rani
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.