Annie H. Ong'ayo, Christopher A. Onyango, Washington O. Ochola


This study assessed the status of agricultural technology transfer after the implementation of Pluralistic and Demand Driven Approach (PDDA) among small-scale farmers in Siaya County. The approach was recommended for implementation by the National Agricultural Extension Policy (NAEP) and the National Agricultural Sector Extension policy (NASEP) that was developed after the review of the NAEP. Ex-post facto survey design, purposive, proportionate, simple and snowball sampling were used to select the study areas and all the extension workers and one hundred and fifty households from the sampling frame. one interview schedule, one questionnaire, an observation and two focus group discussion schedule were used to collect data. Data were analysed using t-test and descriptive statistics. The results show that PDDA improved transfer of agricultural technologies. The improvement was due to use of farmer groups as avenue for transfer of technology and collaboration among agricultural extension service providers. However, the improvement was affected by: inadequate government funding for collaborative activities.; technology packages recommended by researchers that were beyond small-scale farmers ability due to low economic status and discouraged the use  of cultural values and practices that influence crop production; lack of sustainability of farmer groups; and inadequate technical knowledge necessary for engaging in demand for extension services. The paper concludes that the Division of Extension and Training of the Ministry of Agriculture should  plan on how to capacity build small-scale farmer groups formed purposively as avenues for agricultural technology transfer to ensure competencies in basic requirement demanded by funding organizations; a policy framework should be developed that will emphasis on farmers participation in agricultural technology development that are within the means their means , Extension organization should also develop guidelines on how to scale up extension approaches so that they do not create avoid when the programmes ends a particular area



Pluralistic and Demand Driven Approach, Agricultural Technology Transfer, Small-Scale Farmers, National Agricultural Extension Policy.


Anandajayasekeram, P., Puskur, R., Workneh, S. & Hoekstra, D. (2008). Concepts and practices in agricultural extension in developing countries: A source book. IFPRI (International Food Policy Research Institute), Washington, DC, USA, and ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute), Nairobi, Kenya.

Anderson, J. R. (2007). Agricultural advisory services: Background paper for the World Development Report 2008. Agriculture and Rural Development Department, World Bank, Washington, D.C.

Birner, R; K. Davis; J. Pender; E. Nkonya; P. Anandajayasekeram; J. Ekboir, A Mbabu; D. Spielman; D. Horna & S.Benin (2006). From Best Practice to Best Fit: A Framework for Designing and Analyzing Pluralistic Agricultural Advisory Services Worldwide. Development strategies and Govanance Div. IFPRI Washington DC Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, 15(4), 341-355,

Bordens, K.S.B and Abbort, B.B. (2008) Research design and methods. NY. Mc. Graw-Hill Co.

Carr, E. R. (2005). Development and the household: Missing the point?. Department of Geography, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. Retrieved from On 14/03/2012.

Chowa, C., Garforth, C. and Cardey, S. (2013) Farmer experience of pluralistic agricultural extension, Malawi. Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, 19(2),147-166.

Davis, K. E (2008) Extension in sub-Saharan Africa: overview and assessment of past current models and future prospects. International Food Policy Research Institute. Addis ababa, Ethiopia, 15 (3).

Feder, G., Murgai, R. & Quizon, J. B. (2004).The Acquisition and Diffusion of Knowledge: The Case of Pest Management Training in Farmer Field Schools, Indonesia. “Journal of Agricultural Economics,55(2),221-243.

Food Agriculture Organization (FAO). (2001). Mid-term review of global IPM facility Rome FAO. Accessed on 12/5/2011 from:

Garrity, D., A. Okono, M. Grayson & S. Parrott, eds. 2006. World Agroforestry into the Future. Nairobi: World Agroforesty Centre.

Government of Kenya. (2001). National Agricultural Extension Policy (NAEP), Nairobi. Industrial Printers.

Government of Kenya. (2005). Strategies for Revitalizing Agriculture. Nairobi. Industrial Printers.

Government of Kenya. (2010). Kenya constitution. Nairobi. Government Printers.

Government of Kenya (2013). Siaya First County Integrated Development Plan 2013-2017.

Gustafson, D.J. (2002). Supporting the Demand for Change: Recent Project Experience with Farmer Learning Grants in Kenya. A case study prepared for the workshop: Extension and Rural Development. A convergence of views and international approaches. Washington D.C.

Hanyani-Mlambo, B.T (2002). The Integrated Support to Sustainable Development and Food Security Programme. In: Strengthening the pluralistic agricultural extension system: a Zimbabwean case. Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

International initiative for impact evaluation (2010). The impact of agricultural extension services. 3ie synthesis review. SR009 Protocal. Retrieved from . Date: 12/03/2012.

Kathuri, N.J., & Pals, D.A. (1993). Introduction to Educational Research. Egerton. Egerton University Book Series.

Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (2012). Kenya Facts and figure. Nairobi. Government Press.

Kibett, J.K., Omunyin, M. E., & Muchiri, J. (2005). Elements of Agricultural Extension Policy in Kenya.; Challenges and opportunities. African Crop Science Conference proceedings, African Crop Science Society. Vol. 7.

King, K., Palmer, R. & Hayman, .R. (2004). Bridging research and policy on education, training and their enabling environments, University of Edinburgh. Retrieved from: 14/03/2012.

Kwamboka, O. (2008). Agricultural extension works both important and under- valued. International Leadership Programme. Pre-college International Leaders, Available on http://www.

Lastarria-Cornhiel. S. (2006). Feminization of Agriculture: Trends and Driving Forces. Retrieved from: on 14/03/2012.

Madukwe, M. (2006). Delivery of agricultural extension services to farmers in developing countries. Wagenigen. The Netherlands. CTA Publication.

Nganga, S. K., Kungu, J., de Ridder, N. and Herrero, M. (2010). Profit efficiency among Kenyan Smallholder milk producers. A case study of Meru-South district. Kenya. African Journal of Agricultural Research,5(5),332-337.

Ogada, M. J., G. Mwabu & D. Muchai. (2014) Farm technology adoption in Kenya: a simultaneous estimation of inorganic fertilizer and improved maize variety adoption decisions. Agriculture and Food Technology, Agricultural and Food Economics,2(2),1-14.

Parvan, A. (2011) Agricultural Technology Adoption: Issues for Consideration When Scaling-Up. Cornell Institute of Public Affairs, Cornell University.

Quizon, J. Feder, G., & Murgai, R. (2001). A note on the fiscal sustainability of agricultural extension: The Case of the Farmers Field Schools Approach. “Journal of International Agricultural and Extension Education,8(1),1-19.

Rivera, M.W. (2009). Agriculture Extension and Transition worldwide: Policies and Strategies for reforms in developing countries. Module 7. Rome, FAO.

Rivera, M.W. & Quamar, M. K. & Crowder, L. V. (2002). Agriculture and rural extension worldwide: Options for institutional reforms in developing countries. Rome, FAO.

Swanson, B. E. (2006). Extension strategies for poverty alleviation: Lessons from China and India. Journal of Agricultural Extension and Education. Arbana,12(4),285-289.

World Bank. (2003). Extension and Rural development: Converging views on institutional approaches? Summary of workshop proceedings held on November 12-15, 2002, Agriculture and rural development. Washington DC. World Bank.

Zhou, Y. (2010). Reinventing agricultural extension to smallholders. Syngenta Foundation for Sustainable Agriculture.

Full Text: PDF XPS


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Annie H. Ong'ayo, Christopher A. Onyango, Washington O. Ochola

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.