The Effects of Post Harvest Mycodeterioration on the Proximate Composition of Irvingia gabonensis Seeds

Sanyaolu A. A. Adeniyi, Adekunle A. Adedotun, Osuntoki Akinniyi


Postharvest losses of produce occasioned by microorganisms can be either in quantitative or qualitative terms. Both way, and on a global scale, fungal pathogens have been indicted as one of the most important agents responsible for postharvest losses of crops. Fungi associated with diseased Irvingia gabonensis (Baill) seeds were isolated bimonthly from these seeds from four open markets in the Lagos metropolis over a two year period. In terms of number and species abundance, Alayabiagba Market in Ajegunle area had the highest fungal occurrence while Aspergillus niger had a higher percentage occurrence from each, and all of the experimental sites combined. Visually healthy seeds of Irvingia gabonensis were also inoculated with one of the pathogenic fungal species (Aspergillus oryzae) isolated from the diseased seeds and left for between 8-10 days after. Both the visually healthy and Aspergillus oryzae infected (diseased) seeds of Irvingia gabonenesis were subjected to a proximate analysis, considering nutrients such as moisture, fats, ash, protein, crude fibre, carbohydrate and energy. The results from this mycodeterioration studies showed that the Aspergillus oryzae caused some significant reduction in the amount of most of the nutritional parameters in the Irvingia gabonensis seed. This work is probably a first report on pathogenic fungal species associated with the diseased seeds of Irvingia gabonensis in the open market as well as the effect of one of these species on the proximate composition of this seed.


Irvingia gabonensis seed; fungal pathogen; postharvest deterioration; proximate composition; Aspergillus spp.; mycodeterioration


Abdulahi, S.A. 2002. Evaluation of the nutrient composition of some fresh fish families in Northern, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Environment. 2: 141 – 150.

Adekunle, A.A. and T.F. Oluyode. 2005. Biodegradation of Crude Petroleum and Petroleum Products by fungi isoloated from two oil seeds (Melon and soybean seeds). Journal of Environmental Biology. 26(1): 37-42.

Adeleke, R.O. and O.A. Abiodun. 2010. Nutritional and Physico-chemical Properties of Bombax glabrum Seeds. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 9 (9): 856-857.

Anwar, F. and U. Rashid. 2007. Physico-chemical characteristics of Moringa oleifera seeds and seed oil from a wild Province of Pakistan. Pakistani Journal of Botany. 39(5): 1443-1453.

AOAC. 2000. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International, 17th Edition. Gaithersburg, MD, USA, Official Method. 999. 11.

Atasie, V.N., T.F. Akinhanmi and C.C. Ojiodu. 2009. Proximate Analysis and Physico Chemical Properties of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 8(2): 194-197.

Bryce, K. 1992. The fifth Kingdom. Mycologue Publications, Ontario. 412pp.

Burkill, H.M. 1994. The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. 2nd Edition. Volume 2, families E – I. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. 636pp.

Darnetty, T. and B. Salleh. 2013. Toxigenicity of Fusarium species in Gibberrella fujikuroi species Complex (GFSC) associated with stalk and ear rot disease of corn. ESci J. Plant Pathol. 02 (03): 147-154.

Deacon, J.W. 1980. Introduction to Modern Mycology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, London. 197pp.

Domoschet, K.H.W., B. Gams and T. Anderson. 1980. Compendium of soil fungi vol.1. Academic Press, London: 859pp.

Dudu, P.O., S.N. Okiwelu and N.E.S. Lale. 1998. Oviposition of Oryzaephilus meriator (Fauvel) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) on Arachis hypogaea (L.) (Papilionaceae), Citrullus lanatus (Cucurbilzceae) and Irvingia gabonensis var. excelsa (Baill) (Irvingiaceae). Journal of stored products Research. 34(1): 37 – 44.

Giami, S.Y., V.L. Okonkwo and M.O. Akusu. 1994. Chemical Composition and Functional Properties of Raw Heat-treated and partially proteotysed wild mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seed flour. Food Chemistry. 49: 237-243.

Harris, D.J. 1996. A revision of the Irvingiaceae in Africa. Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgiquee. 65:143 – 196.

Harris, D.J. 1999. Part 1. Irvingiaceae. In: Orchard, A. E. (ed). Species plantarum. Flora of the world Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra, Australia: 25pp.

Lacey, J. and B. Crook. 1988. Fungal and actinomycete spore as pollutants of the work place and occupational allergens. Annals of Occupational Hygiene. 32: 515 – 533.

Leakey, R.R.B, P. Greenwell, M.N. Hall, A.R. Atangana, C. Usoro, P.O. Anegbeh, J.M. Fondoun and Z. Tchoundjeu. 2000. Domestication of Irvingia gabonensis: tree-to-tree Variation in food thickening properties and in fat and protein contents of dika nut. Food chemistry. 90:365-378.

Magan, N. and D. Aldred. 2007. Post harvest control strategies: minimizing mycotoxins in the food chain. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 19(1-2): 131 – 139.

Maidala, A., U.D. Udoma and L.M. Egbo. 2013. Effects of Different processing Methods on the Chemical Composition and Antinutritional factors of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill]. Pakistani Journal of Nutrition. 12(12): 1057-1060.

Mimawata, A.D. and M. Yetti. 2013. Improving the quality of Palm kernel Cake through fermentation by Eupenicillium javanicum as Poultry ration. Pakistani Journal of Nutrition. 12(12): 1085-1088.

Okafor, J, and H.C. Okolo. 1974. Potentials of some indigenous forest trees of Nigeria. Paper presented at the 5th Annual Conference of the Forestry Association of Nigeria Jos: 60 – 71.

Oladimeji, G.R. and A.L. Kolapo. 2008. Evaluation of proximate changes and microbiology of defatted residues of some Nigerian oil seeds. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 3(2):126-129.

Platt, B.S. 1962. Tables of Representative Values of Foods commonly used in tropical countries. Special report series 302. Medical research council, London: 46pp.

Tabuna, H. 1999. The Markets for Central African non-wood forest products in Europe. In: Sundersland, T. C. H., Clark, L. E. and Vantomme, P. (Eds). Non Wood forest products of Central Africa: Current research issues and prospects for conservation and development. FAO, Rome, Italy: 251 – 263.

Talbot, O.H.K. 1971. An Introduction to Mycology. Leonard Hill Publishers, London. 252pp.

Thottappilly, G., H.D. Mignouna, A. Onasanya, M. Abang, O. Oyelakin and N.K. Singh. 1999. Identification and differentiation of isolates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from yam by random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. African Crop Science Journal. 7 (2): 195-205.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.33687/phytopath.003.01.0613


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2014 Sanyaolu A. A. Adeniyi, Adekunle A. Adedotun, Osuntoki Akinniyi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.