Mapping the Geospatial Distribution of Citrus Greening Disease in District Layyah, Pakistan

Sonum Bashir, Yasir Iftikhar, Muhammad A. Zeshan, Muhammad U. Ghazanfar, Mustansar Mubeen


Citrus greening disease is one of the established causes of citrus decline in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, including Pakistan. Citrus greening disease is being recognized based on its characteristic symptoms in the field. Symptomatology and Iodo-starch test are the parameters for rapid disease indexing in the field and laboratory and are also helpful for disease mapping. A study was carried out to record the incidence and severity of citrus greening disease within the area of new citrus plantations of Layyah district, including the tehsils viz., Layyah and Karror. The Layyah tehsil showed an incidence of 18%, while Karror showed an incidence of 5.5%. Among the cultivars, the highest disease incidence was attributed to Kinnow (Citrus nobilis x C. deliciosa) at 33% followed by Mosambi (C. sinensis) at 16% and Feutrall’s early at 5%. The highest disease severity was recorded at Layyah with 22.2%. The lowest was observed at Karror with 13.3%. Among the cultivars, Kinnow showed the highest severity, ranging from 27.22% to 36.6% and the least disease severity was recorded in Feutrall’s early of 8.3% at ± 0.05 level of significance. The present study not only helped establish the relationship between the symptomology and quick indexing of disease through iodo-starch test but also provided information through disease mapping in the new citrus plantation of Layyah district for the first time


Citrus; Greening Disease; Symptomology; Quick detection; Mapping


Akhtar, M. A. and I. Ahmad. 1999. Incidence of citrus greening disease in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 11: 1-5.

Ashraf, S., G. A. Khan, S. Ali, M. Iftikhar and N. Mehmood. 2014. Managing insect pests & diseases of citrus: on farm analysis from Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 26: 301-07.

Batool, A., Y. Iftikhar, S. Mughal, M. Khan, M. Jaskani, M. Abbas and I. Khan. 2007. Citrus greening disease, a major cause of citrus decline in the world: A review. Hort Science, 34: 159-66.

Bové, J. M. 2006. Huanglongbing: A destructive, newly-emerging, century-old disease of citrus. Journal of Plant Pathology, 88: 7-37.

Bukhari, A., I. Ijaz, H. Zain, E. Gilani, A. Nazir, A. Bukhari, S. Raza, S. Hussain, S. S. Alarfaji and Y. Naseer. 2022. Removal of Eosin dye from simulated media onto lemon peel-based low cost biosorbent. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 15: 103873.

Catara, A., A. Azzaro, M. Davino, V. Grimaldi, M. Hussain, M. Saleem and M. Mirza. 1991. Survey for Tristeza and Greening in Punjab (Pakistan). Place Published.

Deng, X., Z. Huang, Z. Zheng, Y. Lan and F. Dai. 2019. Field detection and classification of citrus Huanglongbing based on hyperspectral reflectance. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 167: 105006.

Etxeberria, E., P. Gonzalez, P. Bhattacharya, P. Sharma and P. C. Ke. 2016. Determining the size exclusion for nanoparticles in citrus leaves. HortScience, 51: 732-37.

Iftikhar, Y., I. U. Haq, W. Raza, M. I. Ullah, S. Ali, F. N. Khoso and M. Mubeen. 2017. Seasonal fluctuation of Asian citrus psylla populations in the citrus orchards infected with Huanglongbing in Sargodha, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 29: 175-79.

Inoue, H., S. Yamashita-Muraki, K. Fujiwara, K. Honda, H. Ono, T. Nonaka, Y. Kato, T. Matsuyama, S. Sugano and M. Suzuki. 2020. Fe2+ ions alleviate the symptom of citrus greening disease. International journal of molecular sciences, 21: 4033.

Jagoueix, S., J. M. Bové and M. Garnier. 1996. PCR detection of the two Candidatus liberobacter species associated with greening disease of citrus. Molecular and Cellular Probes, 10: 43-50.

Martini, X., A. Hoyte, A. Mafra-Neto, A. A. Aksenov, C. E. Davis and L. L. Stelinski. 2020. Progress toward an attract-and-kill device for Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) using volatile signatures of citrus infected with Huanglongbing as the attractant. Journal of Insect Science, 20: 25.

Mishra, R., R. Narayana, F. Ibanez, D. Achor, T. Shilts, C. El-Mohtar, V. Orbović, L. L. Stelinski and B. C. Bonning. 2023. Bacterial pesticidal protein Mpp51Aa1 delivered via transgenic citrus severely impacts the fecundity of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 89: e00723-23.

Murray, R. and E. Stackebrandt. 1995. Taxonomic note: Implementation of the provisional status Candidatus for incompletely described procaryotes. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 45: 186-87.

Razi, M., I. A. Khan and M. J. Jaskani. 2011. Citrus plant nutritional profile in relation to Huanglongbing prevalence in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 48: 299-304.

Razi, M. F., M. L. Keremane, C. Ramadugu, M. Roose, I. A. Khan and R. F. Lee. 2014. Detection of citrus huanglongbing-associated ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in citrus and Diaphorina citri in Pakistan, seasonal variability, and implications for disease management. Phytopathology, 104: 257-68.

Saifullah, I. U. H., Y. Iftikhar, S. A. Khan, M. J. Jaskani and R. M. S. Tariq. 2015. Quick indexing of Huanglongbing on the basis of symptomology and iodo-starch test in relation to environmental factors. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 52: 1005-09.

Sajid, A., M. U. Ghazanfar, S. Rauf, Z. Hussain, S. Ahmad and Y. Iftikhar. 2021. Incidence and molecular detection of greening disease in two citrus cultivars in Sargodha, Pakistan. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 37: 296-301.

Sajid, A., Y. Iftikhar, M. U. Ghazanfar, M. Mubeen, Z. Hussain and E. A. Moya-Elizondo. 2022. Morpho-chemical characterization of Huanglongbing in mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and orange (Citrus sinensis) varieties from Pakistan. Chilean journal of agricultural research, 82: 484-92.

Taylor, R. A., S. J. Ryan, C. A. Lippi, D. G. Hall, H. A. Narouei‐Khandan, J. R. Rohr and L. R. Johnson. 2019. Predicting the fundamental thermal niche of crop pests and diseases in a changing world: a case study on citrus greening. Journal of Applied Ecology, 56: 2057-68.

Tran, T.-T., K. Clark, W. Ma and A. Mulchandani. 2020. Detection of a secreted protein biomarker for citrus Huanglongbing using a single-walled carbon nanotubes-based chemiresistive biosensor. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 147: 111766.

Xiao, D., R. Zeng, Y. Liu, Y. Huang, J. Liu, J. Feng and X. Zhang. 2022. Citrus greening disease recognition algorithm based on classification network using TRL-GAN. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 200: 107206.

Yaqub, M. S., I. A. Khan, M. Usman and I. A. Rana. 2017. Molecular detection of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal organism of huanglongbing (Citrus greening) in Faisalabad, Pakistan for huanglongbing management. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 54: 21-26.

Zafarullah, A. and F. Saleem. 2016. Detection and molecular characterization of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter spp. causing “huanglongbing”(HLB) in indigenous citrus cultivars in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 48: 2071-76.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.33687/phytopath.012.03.4756


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Sonum Bashir, Yasir Iftikhar, Muhammad Ahmad Zeshan, Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar, Mustansar Mubeen

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.