Evaluation of Seedling Resistance and Marker Assisted Selection for Leaf Rust (Puccinia triticina) Resistance in Pakistani Wheat Landraces, Cultivars and Advanced Lines

Abdul W. Channa, Hadi Bux, Ghulam H. Jatoi, Mahboob A. Sial, Syed M. A. Shah, Isabel M. G. Figari, Naimatullah Koondhar


Leaf rust is amongst major biotic constraints of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) having ability to cause substantial yield reductions worldwide. A continuous exploration for novel sources of resistance is pre-requisite for its management. Objectives of study were to conduct resistance evaluation of 112 Pakistani landraces and 48 advanced lines/ cultivars at seedling stage with total 10 virulent pathotypes of leaf rust, 3 from Pakistan and 7 from U.S.A and to detect closely linked markers for Lr10, 16, 34 and 67 genes through marker-assisted selection (MAS). Findings revealed most of Pakistani landraces showed lack of resistance at seedling stage. Only 7 accessions of landraces and 11 advanced lines were found highly resistant against all pathotypes of Pakistan. Similarly, 10 advanced lines exhibited high resistance while variability in resistance was recorded for landraces against all pathotypes tested from USA. Marker-assisted selection revealed Lr genes i.e. Lr10, Lr16, Lr34 and Lr67 were present at various frequencies. Highest frequency was observed for Lr34 followed by Lr16 & Lr67 while lowest was recorded for Lr10. These genetic resources and lines identified effective against Pakistan and USA pathotypes are potential sources for improvement of leaf rust (LR) resistance and can be utilized as valuable material for breeding resistant wheat cultivars.


Leaf rust; seedling resistance; advanced lines; wheat cultivars; landraces; infection types; marker-assisted selection


Ayliffe, M., R. Singh and E. Lagudah. 2008. Durable resistance to wheat stem rust needed. Current opinion in plant biology, 11: 187-92.

Bariana, H., G. Brown, U. Bansal, H. Miah, G. Standen and M. J. A. J. o. A. R. Lu. 2007. Breeding triple rust resistant wheat cultivars for Australia using conventional and marker-assisted selection technologies, 58: 576-87.

Blaszczyk, L., J. Chelkowski, V. Korzun, J. KRAIC, F. ORDON, J. OVESNA, L. PURNHAUSER, M. TAR and G. VIDA. 2004. Verification of STS markers for leaf rust resistance genes of wheat by seven European laboratories. cellular and molecular biology letters, 9: 805-17.

Browder, L. E. 1971. Pathogenic specialization in cereal rust fungi, especially Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici: concepts, methods of study, and application. US Agricultural Research Service.

Channa, A. W., H. Bux, M. A. Sial, G. H. Jatoi and R. Kumar. 2021. Virulence Phenotyping of Leaf Rust (Puccinia triticina) Isolates from Southern Pakistan. International Journal of Phytopathology, 10: 101-23.

Chen, X. 2005. Epidemiology and control of stripe rust [Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici] on wheat. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 27: 314-37.

Chen, X. 2013. High-temperature adult-plant resistance, key for sustainable control of stripe rust.

DL, L. and J. Kolmer. 1989. A North American system of nomenclature for Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici.

Dotlačil, L., J. Hermuth, Z. Stehno, V. Dvořáček, J. Bradová and L. Leišová. 2010. How can wheat landraces contribute to present breeding? Czech Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding, 46.

Doyle, J. J. and J. L. Doyle. 1990. Isolation ofplant DNA from fresh tissue. Focus, 12: 39-40.

Edwards, K., C. Johnstone and C. Thompson. 1991. A simple and rapid method for the preparation of plant genomic DNA for PCR analysis. Nucleic acids research, 19: 1349.

Ellis, J. G., E. S. Lagudah, W. Spielmeyer and P. N. Dodds. 2014. The past, present and future of breeding rust resistant wheat. Frontiers in plant science, 5: 641.

FAOSTAT, F. J. F. and a. o. o. t. U. Nations. 2016. URL: http://www. fao. org/faostat/en/-data/QC.

Feuillet, C., G. Schachermayr and B. Keller. 1997. Molecular cloning of a new receptor‐like kinase gene encoded at the Lr10 disease resistance locus of wheat. The Plant Journal, 11: 45-52.

Feuillet, C., S. Travella, N. Stein, L. Albar, A. Nublat and B. Keller. 2003. Map-based isolation of the leaf rust disease resistance gene Lr10 from the hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100: 15253-58.

German, S. and J. Kolmer. 1992. Effect of gene Lr34 in the enhancement of resistance to leaf rust of wheat. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 84: 97-105.

Gowda, M., Y. Zhao, T. Würschum, C. F. Longin, T. Miedaner, E. Ebmeyer, R. Schachschneider, E. Kazman, J. Schacht and J. Martinant. 2014. Relatedness severely impacts accuracy of marker-assisted selection for disease resistance in hybrid wheat. Heredity, 112: 552.

Haile, J. K. and M. S. J. A. J. o. A. R. Rouml. 2013. Status of genetic research for resistance to Ug99 race of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici: A review of current research and implications, 8: 6670-80.

Herrera-Foessel, S. A., E. S. Lagudah, J. Huerta-Espino, M. J. Hayden, H. S. Bariana, D. Singh and R. P. Singh. 2011. New slow-rusting leaf rust and stripe rust resistance genes Lr67 and Yr46 in wheat are pleiotropic or closely linked. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 122: 239-49.

Hiebert, C. W., J. B. Thomas and B. D. McCallum. 2010. Stacking pairs of disease resistance genes in wheat populations using telocentric chromosomes. Molecular breeding, 26: 681-92.

Huerta-Espino, J., R. Singh, S. German, B. McCallum, R. Park, W. Q. Chen, S. Bhardwaj and H. Goyeau. 2011. Global status of wheat leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina. Euphytica, 179: 143-60.

Hussain, M., M. Chaudhary, J. Shah, M. Hussain and M. Younis. 1998. Genetic Diversity to Puccinia reconditta f. sp. tritici in 59 wheat lines. Pak. J. Phytopath, 10: 113-21.

Hussain, M., S. Hassan and M. Kirmani. 1980. Virulence in Puccinia recondita Rob. ex. Desm. f. sp. tritici in Pakistan during 1978 and 1979. Proceedings of the 5th European and Mediterranean Cereal Rust Conference.

Jin, Y., L. J. Szabo and M. Carson. 2010. Century-old mystery of Puccinia striiformis life history solved with the identification of Berberis as an alternate host. Phytopathology, 100: 432-35.

Kassa, M. T., F. M. You, C. W. Hiebert, C. J. Pozniak, P. R. Fobert, A. G. Sharpe, J. G. Menzies, D. G. Humphreys, N. R. Harrison and J. P. Fellers. 2017. Highly predictive SNP markers for efficient selection of the wheat leaf rust resistance gene Lr16. BMC plant biology, 17: 45.

Khan, M., M. Hussain, M. Hussain and M. Hussain. 2002. Wheat leaf rust (Puccinia recondita) occurrence and shifts in its virulence in Punjab and NWFP. Pak. J. Phytopathol, 14: 1-6.

Kolmer, J. 2013. Leaf rust of wheat: pathogen biology, variation and host resistance. Forests, 4: 70-84.

Kolmer, J. and M. J. P. d. Hughes. 2013. Physiologic specialization of Puccinia triticina on wheat in the United States in 2011, 97: 1103-08.

Kolmer, J., Z. Mert, K. Akan, L. Demir, R. Ünsal, C. Şermet, M. Keser, B. Akin and A. Morgounov. 2013. Virulence of Puccinia triticina in Turkey and leaf rust resistance in Turkish wheat cultivars. European journal of plant pathology, 135: 703-16.

Kolmer, J. A. 2005. Tracking wheat rust on a continental scale. Current opinion in plant biology, 8: 441-49.

Lagudah, E., H. McFadden, R. Singh, J. Huerta-Espino, H. Bariana and W. Spielmeyer. 2006. Molecular genetic characterization of the Lr34/Yr18 slow rusting resistance gene region in wheat. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 114: 21-30.

Lagudah, E. S. 2011. Molecular genetics of race non-specific rust resistance in wheat. Euphytica, 179: 81-91.

Lowe, I., D. Cantu and J. J. E. Dubcovsky. 2011. Durable resistance to the wheat rusts: integrating systems biology and traditional phenotype-based research methods to guide the deployment of resistance genes, 179: 69-79.

Mammadov, J., R. Aggarwal, R. Buyyarapu and S. J. I. j. o. p. g. Kumpatla. 2012. SNP markers and their impact on plant breeding, 2012.

McCallum, B. and P. Seto-Goh. 2003. Physiologic specialization of wheat leaf rust [Puccinia triticina] in Canada in 2000. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 25: 91-97.

McCartney, C., D. Somers, B. McCallum, J. Thomas, D. Humphreys, J. Menzies and P. Brown. 2005. Microsatellite tagging of the leaf rust resistance gene Lr16 on wheat chromosome 2BSc. Molecular breeding, 15: 329-37.

McIntosh, R., J. Dubcovsky, W. Rogers, C. Morris and X. Xia. 2017. Catalogue of Gene Symbols for Wheat: 2017 Supplement (KOMUGI Wheat Genetic Resource Database).

McIntosh, R., Y. Yamazaki, K. Devos, J. Dubkovsky, W. Rogers and R. Appels. 2003. MacGene 2003-Catalogue of gene symbols for wheat. CD. Proc 10th Int Wheat Genet Symp.

McIntosh, R., Y. Yamazaki, J. Dubcovsky, W. Rogers, C. Morris, D. Somers, R. Appels and K. J. A. W. N. Devos. 2013. MacGene 2012: catalogue of gene symbols for wheat, 58: 259-79.

McIntosh, R. A., C. R. Wellings and R. F. Park. 1995. Wheat rusts: an atlas of resistance genes. CSIRO publishing.

Mirza, J. I., R. P. Singh and I. Ahmad. 2000. Resistance to leaf rust in Pakistani wheat lines. Pak. J. Biol. Sci, 3: 1056-61.

Nagarajan, S. and L. Joshi. 1985. Epidemiology in the Indian subcontinent. In, Diseases, Distribution, Epidemiology, and Control. Elsevier.

Obert, D., A. Fritz, J. Moran, S. Singh, J. C. Rudd and M. Menz. 2005. Identification and molecular tagging of a gene from PI 289824 conferring resistance to leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) in wheat. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 110: 1439-44.

Oliver, R. P. J. P. m. s. 2014. A reassessment of the risk of rust fungi developing resistance to fungicides, 70: 1641-45.

Ortiz, R., H.-J. Braun, J. Crossa, J. H. Crouch, G. Davenport, J. Dixon, S. Dreisigacker, E. Duveiller, Z. He, J. J. G. R. Huerta and C. Evolution. 2008. Wheat genetic resources enhancement by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), 55: 1095-140.

Parlevliet, J. and H. Kuiper. 1977. Partial resistance of barley to leaf rust, Puccinia hordei. IV. Effect of cultivar and development stage on infection frequency. Euphytica, 26: 249-55.

Randhawa, M., U. Bansal, M. Valárik, B. Klocová, J. Doležel, H. J. T. Bariana and A. genetics. 2014. Molecular mapping of stripe rust resistance gene Yr51 in chromosome 4AL of wheat, 127: 317-24.

Rattu, A., I. Ahmad, R. Singh, M. Fayyaz, J. Mirza, K. Khanzada and M. Haque. 2010. Resistance to Puccinia triticina in some Pakistani wheats. Pak. J. Bot, 42: 2719-35.

Reif, J. C., P. Zhang, S. Dreisigacker, M. L. Warburton, M. van Ginkel, D. Hoisington, M. Bohn, A. E. J. T. Melchinger and A. Genetics. 2005. Wheat genetic diversity trends during domestication and breeding, 110: 859-64.

Rizvi, S., M. Hussain and M. Aslam. 1984. Leaf rust of wheat in Pakistan during 1983 [Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici]. Colloques de l'INRA (France).

Roelfs, A. 1988. Resistance to leaf and stem rusts in wheat. Breeding Strategies for Resistance to the Rusts of Wheat, El Batan, Mexico (Mexico), 29 Jun-1 Jul 1987.

Roelfs, A. P. 1992. Rust diseases of wheat: concepts and methods of disease management. Cimmyt.

Schachermayr, G., C. Feuillet and B. Keller. 1997. Molecular markers for the detection of the wheat leaf rust resistance gene Lr10 in diverse genetic backgrounds. Molecular breeding, 3: 65-74.

Schnurbusch, T., E. Bossolini, M. Messmer and B. Keller. 2004a. Tagging and validation of a major quantitative trait locus for leaf rust resistance and leaf tip necrosis in winter wheat cultivar Forno. Phytopathology, 94: 1036-41.

Schnurbusch, T., S. Paillard, A. Schori, M. Messmer, G. Schachermayr, M. Winzeler and B. Keller. 2004b. Dissection of quantitative and durable leaf rust resistance in Swiss winter wheat reveals a major resistance QTL in the Lr34 chromosomal region. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 108: 477-84.

Serfling, A., I. Krämer, V. Lind, E. Schliephake and F. J. E. J. o. P. P. Ordon. 2011. Diagnostic value of molecular markers for Lr genes and characterization of leaf rust resistance of German winter wheat cultivars with regard to the stability of vertical resistance, 130: 559-75.

SI, S. and E.-O. WM. 2015. Relationship between partial resistance and inheritance of adult plant resistance gene Lr 46 of leaf rust in six bread wheat varieties. Advances in Crop Science and Technology.

Singh, R. and S. Rajaram. 1992. Genetics of adult-plant resistance of leaf rust in'Frontana'and three CIMMYT wheats. Genome, 35: 24-31.

Singh, R. P. 1992. Association between gene Lr34 for leaf rust resistance and leaf tip necrosis in wheat. Crop Science, 32: 874-78.

Singh, R. P., D. P. Hodson, J. Huerta-Espino, Y. Jin, S. Bhavani, P. Njau, S. Herrera-Foessel, P. K. Singh, S. Singh and V. J. A. r. o. p. Govindan. 2011. The emergence of Ug99 races of the stem rust fungus is a threat to world wheat production, 49: 465-81.

Singh, R. P., D. P. Hodson, Y. Jin, E. S. Lagudah, M. A. Ayliffe, S. Bhavani, M. N. Rouse, Z. A. Pretorius, L. J. Szabo and J. Huerta-Espino. 2015. Emergence and spread of new races of wheat stem rust fungus: continued threat to food security and prospects of genetic control. Phytopathology, 105: 872-84.

Spielmeyer, W., P. Sharp and E. Lagudah. 2003. Identification and validation of markers linked to broad-spectrum stem rust resistance gene Sr2 in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Crop Science, 43: 333-36.

Sthapit, J., M. Newcomb, J. M. Bonman, X. Chen and D. R. See. 2014. Genetic diversity for stripe rust resistance in wheat landraces and identification of accessions with resistance to stem rust and stripe rust. Crop Science, 54: 2131-39.

Todorovska, E., N. Christov, S. Slavov, P. Christova and D. Vassilev. 2009. Biotic stress resistance in wheat—breeding and genomic selection implications. Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment, 23: 1417-26.

Trick, M., N. M. Adamski, S. G. Mugford, C.-C. Jiang, M. Febrer and C. J. B. p. b. Uauy. 2012. Combining SNP discovery from next-generation sequencing data with bulked segregant analysis (BSA) to fine-map genes in polyploid wheat, 12: 1-17.

Van Ginkel, M. and S. Rajaram. 1993. Breeding for durable resistance to diseases in wheat: an international perspective. In, Durability of disease resistance. Springer.

Wamishe, Y. A. and E. A. Milus. 2004. Genes for adult-plant resistance to leaf rust in soft red winter wheat. Plant Disease, 88: 1107-14.

Wang, S., D. Wong, K. Forrest, A. Allen, S. Chao, B. E. Huang, M. Maccaferri, S. Salvi, S. G. Milner and L. J. P. b. j. Cattivelli. 2014. Characterization of polyploid wheat genomic diversity using a high‐density 90 000 single nucleotide polymorphism array, 12: 787-96.

Wellings, C. R. J. E. 2011. Global status of stripe rust: a review of historical and current threats, 179: 129-41.

Yamin, S. Y., J. A. Tariq, M. M. Raza, S. H. Bhutto and M. U. Asif. 2021. Screening of wheat genotypes against leaf rust under artificial and natural environmental condition. Journal of Applied Research in Plant Sciences, 2: 117-22.

Zurn, J. D., M. Newcomb, M. N. Rouse, Y. Jin, S. Chao, J. Sthapit, D. R. See, R. Wanyera, P. Njau and J. M. J. M. b. Bonman. 2014. High-density mapping of a resistance gene to Ug99 from the Iranian landrace PI 626573, 34: 871-81.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.33687/phytopath.011.02.4260


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Dr Ghulam Hussain Jatoi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.