Exploration of Resistance and Susceptibility in Chilli Varieties/Advanced Lines against Fusarium Wilt Caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. capsici (FOC)

Saba Saeed, Shahbaz Talib Sahi, Muhammad Atiq, Muhammad Shahid, Muhammad Arshad


Chilli (Capsicum annum L.) is a popular edible spice crop grown in tropical areas around the world due to its high nutrient content, which includes carotenoids, fibers, mineral components, oils, proteins, and vitamins. Several biotic and abiotic factors are challenging devastatingly the successful production of chilli. Among these, fusarium wilt is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. capsici (Foc.) is a potential risk of declining its yield every year. The use of resistant varieties is considered the best option to cope Foc. For this purpose, twenty-five varieties/advanced lines of chilli were evaluated against Fusarium wilt under natural field conditions for two years consecutive years 2017-18 and 2018-19 under randomized complete block design (RCBD). Results exhibited that none of the varieties/advanced lines expressed immune response against the disease. Only one variety (BPVLC 14-1) was resistant with 18.76% disease incidence. Uttal, Fengaio, Glaxy-2, Big daddy, GHHP 01, PH-275, Super sky AB, HPO33, and Super king were found moderately resistant (MR) with 21-40% disease incidence. Four varieties/advanced lines viz. Hot-701, Hotshot, Omega, and Silkey Red showed a moderately susceptible response (MS) with 41-50% and Four (Super hot, Patiala F1, Angel F1, and Green King) were susceptible (S) with 51-70% incidence of Fusarium wilt. Seven (Tejal, BSS-410, Big Red AB, SB 6864-HM, Glory F1, Revival, and Amber F1) varieties / advanced lines exhibited highly susceptible (HS) response.


Capsicum annum; Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. capsici; Solanaceae; anti hypertensive


Abdel-Monaim, M. F. and M. E. Ismail. 2010. The use of antioxidants to control root rot and wilt diseases of pepper. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 2: 46-55. https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb223699

Alegbejo, M. D., A. B. Lawal and P. S. Chindo. 2006. Outbreak of basal stem rot and wilt disease of pepper in Katsina, Nigeria. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 39: 93-98. https://doi.org/10.1080/03235400500180834

Asnin, L. and S. Park. 2015. Isolation and analysis of bioactive compounds in Capsicum peppers. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 55: 254-89. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2011.652316

Bajwa, R., I. Mukhtar and T. Anjum. 2004. In vitro biological control of Fusarium solani-cause of wilt in Dalbergia sissooRoxb. Mycopath, 2: 11-14.

Bosland, P. W., E. J. Votava and E. M. Votava. 2012. Peppers: Vegetable and Spice Capsicums. CAB International. https://doi.org/10.1079/9781845938253.0000

Castillo-Téllez, M., I. Pilatowsky-Figueroa, E. C. López-Vidaña, O. Sarracino-Martínez and G. Hernández-Galvez. 2017. Dehydration of the red chilli (Capsicum annuum L., costeño) using an indirect-type forced convection solar dryer. Applied thermal engineering, 114: 1137-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.08.114

Chen, L. and Y.-H. Kang. 2013. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) stalk extracts: Comparison of pericarp and placenta extracts. Journal of Functional Foods, 5: 1724-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2013.07.018

El-Kazzaz, M., G. El-Fadly, M. Hassan and G. El-Kot. 2008. Identification of some Fusarium spp. using molecular biology techniques. Egyptian Journal of Phytopathology, 36: 57-69.

Geetha, R. and K. Selvarani. 2017. A study of chilli production and export from India. International Journal of Advance Research and Innovative Ideas in Education, 3: 205-10.

Hahn, M. 2014. The rising threat of fungicide resistance in plant pathogenic fungi: Botrytis as a case study. Journal of chemical biology, 7: 133-41. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12154-014-0113-1

Hussain, F. and M. Abid. 2011. Pest and diseases of chilli crop in Pakistan: A review. International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, 8: 325-32.

Ignjatov, M., D. Milosevic, Z. Nikolic, J. Gvozdanovic-Varga, D. Jovicic and G. Zdjelar. 2015. Fusarium oxysporum as causal agent of tomato wilt and fruit rot. Journal Pesticides and Phytomedicine, 27: 25-31. https://doi.org/10.2298/PIF1201025I

Joshi, M., R. Srivastava, A. K. Sharma and A. Prakash. 2012. Screening of resistant varieties and antagonistic Fusarium oxysporum for biocontrol of Fusarium wilt of chilli. Journal of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, 3: 1-6. https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7471.1000134

Kassi, A. K., H. Javed and T. Mukhtar. 2018. Screening of okra cultivars for resistance against Helicoverpa armigera. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 50: 91-95. https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjz/2018.

Khan, M. H. 2017. Timely rain spices up chilli outlook, Daily Dawn, March 18, 2018.

Latiffah, Z., M. Padzilah, S. Baharuddin and Z. Maziah. 2009. Fusarium species in forest soil of bird valley. Malaysian Journal of Microbiology, 5: 132-33. https://doi.org/10.21161/mjm.16709

Leslie, J. F. and B. A. Summerell. 2008. The Fusarium Laboratory Manual. Blackwell Publisher: Ames, IA, USA.

Manu, D., B. Tembhurne, B. Kisan, D. Aswathnarayana and J. Diwan. 2014. Inheritance of fusarium wilt and qualitative and quantitative characters in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.). Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, 3: 433-44.

Materska, M. 2014. Bioactive phenolics of fresh and freeze-dried sweet and semi-spicy pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L.). Journal of Functional Foods, 7: 269-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2014.02.002

Naik, M., R. Devika, M. Patil and M. Patil. 2008. Screening of chilli genotypes against Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. Vegetable Science, 35: 49-54.

Ochoa-Alejo, N. and J. E. Gómez-Peralta. 1993. Activity of enzymes involved in capsaicin biosynthesis in callus tissue and fruits of chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Journal of Plant Physiology, 141: 147-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0176-1617(11)80751-0

Rahoo, A. M., T. Mukhtar, S. R. Gowen, R. K. Rahoo and S. I. Abro. 2017. Reproductive potential and host searching ability of entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema feltiae. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 49: 229-34. https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjz/2017.

Sarwar, N., M. Z. Ch, I. Haq and F. Jamil. 2005. Induction of systemic resistance in chickpea against Fusarium wilt by seed treatment with salicylic acid and Bion. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 37: 989-94.

Shafique, S., M. Asif and S. Shafique. 2015. Management of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. capsici by leaf extract of Eucalyptus citriodora. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 47: 1177-82.

Shafique, S., S. Shafique and A. Ahmad. 2018. Biochemical and molecular screening of varieties of chilli plants that are resistant against Fusarium wilt infection. European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology, 8: 12-19. https://doi.org/10.1556/1886.2017.00031

Shahzaman, S., M. Inam-ul-Haq, T. Mukhtar and M. Naeem. 2015. Isolation, identification of antagonistic rhizobacterial strains obtained from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) field and their in-vitro evaluation against fungal root pathogens. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 47: 1553-58.

Soesanto, L., E. Mugiastuti, R. F. Rahayuniati and A. Manan. 2011. Kajianmekanisme antagonist Pseudomonas fluorescens P60 terhadap Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici padatanamantomat in vivo. Journal Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan Tropika, 10: 118-15. https://doi.org/10.23960/j.hptt.210108-115

Steel, R. G. D., J. H. Torrie and D. A. Dickey. 1997. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. McGraw Hill Book Co.: New York.

Suárez‐Estrella, F., M. Vargas‐García, M. Elorrieta, M. López and J. Moreno. 2003. Temperature effect on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis survival during horticultural waste composting. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 94: 475-82. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.2003.01854.x

Sundaramoorthy, S., T. Raguchander, N. Ragupathi and R. Samiyappan. 2012. Combinatorial effect of endophytic and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria against wilt disease of Capsicum annum L. caused by Fusarium solani. Biological Control, 60: 59-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2011.10.002

Suryanto, D., S. Patonah and E. Munir. 2010. Control of fusarium wilt of chilli with chitinolytic bacteria. HAYATI Journal of Biosciences, 17: 5-8. https://doi.org/10.4308/hjb.17.1.5

Tanyolaç, B. and C. Akkale. 2010. Screening of resistance genes to fusarium root rot and fusarium wilt diseases in F3 family lines of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) using RAPD and CAPs markers. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9: 2727-30.

Tolan, I., D. Ragoobirsingh and E. Y. S. A. Morrison. 2004. Isolation and purification of the hypoglycaemic principle present in Capsicum frutescens. Phytotherapy Research, 18: 95-96. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1328

Tundis, R., F. Menichini, M. Bonesi, F. Conforti, G. Statti, F. Menichini and M. R. Loizzo. 2013. Antioxidant and hypoglycaemic activities and their relationship to phytochemicals in Capsicum annuum cultivars during fruit development. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 53: 370-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2013.02.013

Veloso, J. and J. Díaz. 2012. Fusarium oxysporum Fo47 confers protection to pepper plants against Verticillium dahliae and Phytophthora capsici, and induces the expression of defence genes. Plant Pathology, 61: 281-88. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2011.02516.x

Ziino, M., C. Condurso, V. Romeo, G. Tripodi and A. Verzera. 2009. Volatile compounds and capsaicinoid content of fresh hot peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) of different Calabrian varieties. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 89: 774-80. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3511

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.33687/phytopath.011.01.4148


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Saba Saeed, Shahbaz Talib Sahi, Muhammad Atiq, Muhammad Shahid, Muhammad Arshad

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.