Efficacy and Induction Resistance of Neem Extract and Mancozeb 80 Wp on Physoderma Brown Spot and Physoderma Stalk Rot Diseases of Corn (Zea mays) caused by Physoderma Maydis in Far North Cameroon

Ngoh D. J. Patrice, Djongnang Gabriel, Tene T. P. Martial, Tenyang Noel, Deurnaye Placide, Mbou T. P. Rony, Yamagui Rita, Ntatsinda C. Durel, Djile Bouba, Ambang Zachee


Corn (Zea mays) is one of the most widely spread cereals in the world. However, in the Far North Region of Cameroon, the incidence of some maize diseases progress because of farming practices and climate change (rainfall). This work aims to evaluate effect and resistance stimulation of neem extract and Mancozeb fungicide on Brown Spot (PBS) and Stalk Rot (PSR) diseases of corn due to Physoderma maydis in field condition. The experimental design was a two-factor split-plot. The treatments were a combination of Control (T), Mancozeb (Mz) at the concentration of 6g/L and aqueous extract of neem seeds (AENS) at the concentration of 50g/L with CMS 9015 and CMS 8704 varieties. Incidence, severity, rainfall, Area Under Disease Progress Curve (AUIPC, AUSiPC) were recorded.  Phenol and protein rates, enzymatic activity of Polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POX) and glucanase were carried out. Stalk length and yield were evaluated. Incidence and severity of Physoderma Brown Spot (PBS) and Physoderma Stalk Rot (PSR) increased with time and environmental conditions (rainfall). The highest disease incidence was observed in the control treatments with both diseases, 52.39 and 37.67 % respectively for Brown Spot and Stalk Rot in CMS8704 variety and lower with AENS, 13.5 and 36.01%. AENS reduced PBS incidence and severity by 23.1 and 19.9 %, respectively and Mz by 9.3 and 18.1 %. The AUIPC and AUSiPC of PBS and PSR remained lower with AENS treatment during the growing season and higher with the other treatments. The highest phenol and proteins rates (8.81 and 25.1 mg/g/FM) were recorded for the AENS treatment in CMS9015 and CMS8704 variety, respectively. Enzymatic activity was more enhanced in CMS8704 variety with AENS. 4.22 A470/min/g, 1.55 A470/min/g and 1.15 µmole/min /g were recorded respectively for PPO, POX, and Glucane activities. Stalk length was higher in AENS and Mancozeb treatments with variety CMS8704 (125.13 and 123 cm respectively). A yield increase of 7.44% was obtained in the AENS treatment. The combination or not of aqueous neem extract and CMS8704 could be used in the integrated control of PBS and PSR of maize


Zea maïs; Physoderma maydis; Brown spot; Stalk rot; AUDPC; Enzymatic activity; Phenol; proteins


Ahmad, M. and M. I. Arif. 2010. Resistance of beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to endosulfan, organophosphorus and pyrethroid insecticides in Pakistan. Crop Protection, 29: 1428-33.

Bektas, Y. and T. Eulgem. 2015. Synthetic plant defense elicitors. Frontiers in Plant Science, 5: 104-10.

Bharathi, R., R. Vivekananthan, S. Harish, A. Ramanathan and R. Samiyappan. 2004. Rhizobacteria-based bio-formulations for the management of fruit rot infection in chillies. Crop Protection, 23: 835-43.

Bhuvaneshwari, V. and P. K. Paul. 2012. Transcriptional and translational regulation of defense enzymes induced by neem fruit extract in tomato. Archives Of Phytopathology And Plant Protection, 45: 1374-85.

Bradford, M. M. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry, 72: 248-54.

Burns, E. E. and M. C. Shurtleff. 1973. Observations of Physoderma maydis in Illinois: Effects of tillage practices in field corn. Plant Disease Reporter, 57: 630-33.

Chand, G., J. N. Srivastava, K. Sunil and K. Sanjeev. 2013. Efficacy of different fungicide against anthracnose of mango (Mangifera indica L.) in Eastern Bihar. International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 9: 204-06.

Craigie, J. S. 2010. Seaweed extract stimuli in plant science and agriculture. Journal of Applied Phycology, 23: 371-93.

Dai, J. 1999. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of neem and the development of a colorimetric method for the determination of azadirachtin related limonoids (AZRL), McGill University.

Duamkhanmanee, R. 2008. Natural essential oils from lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) to control postharvest anthracnose of mango fruit. International Journal of Biotechnology, 10: 104.

Eloff, J. N. and L. J. McGaw. 2014. Using African plant biodiversity to combat microbial infections Novel Plant Bioresources. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. pp. 163-73.

FAO. 2019. State of Food and Agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization. Rome, Italy, pp. 203.

FAO. 2020. World situation of food and agriculture: Synthesis report by country. Food and Agriculture Organization. Rome, Italy, pp. 1.

Ghormade, V., M. V. Deshpande and K. M. Paknikar. 2011. Perspectives for nano-biotechnology enabled protection and nutrition of plants. Biotechnology Advances, 29: 792-803.

Goel, N., K. Anukrati and P. K. Paul. 2016. Anti-phytopathogenic and SAR inducing properties of Neem: A review. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 9: 2547-55.

Goel, N. and P. K. Paul. 2015. Plant age affects elicitation of polyphenol oxidase activity by neem extract in Solanum lycopersicum against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences, 62: 283-93.

Hadrami, I. and M. Baaziz. 1995. Somatic embryogenesis and analysis of peroxidases in Phoenix dactylifera L. Biologia plantarum, 37: 197-203.

Hanna, S. O., S. P. Conley, G. E. Shaner and J. B. Santini. 2008. Fungicide application timing and row spacing effect on soybean canopy penetration and grain yield. Agronomy Journal, 100: 1488-92.

Harvey, P. H., D. L. Thompson and T. T. Herbert. 1955. Reaction of inbred lines of corn to brown spot. Plant Disease Reporter, 39: 973-76.

Leelasuphakul, W., P. Sivanunsakul and S. Phongpaichit. 2006. Purification, characterization and synergistic activity of β-1,3-glucanase and antibiotic extract from an antagonistic Bacillus subtilis NSRS 89-24 against rice blast and sheath blight. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 38: 990-97.

Li, J.-h., X.-y. Jiang, Y. Wang, D.-q. Ge, L.-x. Nie and S.-h. Wu. 2010. Effect of tebuconazole on the spatial distribution of corn brown spot and the yield to summer maize. Agrochemicals, 7.

Li, N., J. Zhao, R. Zhang, L. Deng, J. Li, Y. Gao and C. Liu. 2018. Effect of tebuconazole enantiomers and environmental factors on fumonisin accumulation and FUM gene expression in Fusarium verticillioides. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 66: 13107-15.

Masoko, P. and J. N. Eloff. 2005. The diversity of antifungal compounds of six South African Terminalia species (Combretaceae) determined by bioautography. African Journal of Biotechnology, 4: 1425-31.

Mboussi, S. B., Z. Ambang and J. P. Ngoh Dooh. 2016. Aqueous extracts effects of seeds of Thevetia peruviana and Azadirachta indica on the development of Phytophthora megakarya in locality of Biakoa (Cameroon). Journal of Applied Biosciences, 105: 10042-54.

MINADER. 2019. Agricultural risk assessment in Cameroon. Platform for Agricultural Risk Management. pp. 138.

Moreira, R. R., N. A. Hamada, N. A. Peres and L. L. M. De Mio. 2019a. Sensitivity of the Colletotrichum acutatum species complex from apple trees in Brazil to dithiocarbamates, methyl benzimidazole carbamates, and quinone outside inhibitor fungicides. Plant Disease, 103: 2569-76.

Moreira, R. R., N. A. Peres and L. L. May De Mio. 2019b. Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides species complexes associated with apple in Brazil. Plant Disease, 103: 268-75.

Mueller, D. and K. Wise. 2016. Corn disease loss estimates from the United States and Ontario, Canada-2013. Crop Protection Netework. http://dx.doi.org/10.31274/cpn-20190620-036

Ngoh dooh, J. P., S. Bamle, B. Djile, L. Gaye, T. D. B. Tchoupo, T. Boulga, K. T. and A. Z. 2019. Maize diseases under fertilizers (chemical, organic and biologic) in far north Cameroon. Seminars of the Faculty of Sciences, University of Maroua.

Ogoshi, C. 2020. Performance of fungicides on the management of Glomerella leaf spot in southern Brazil. Plant Pathology and Quarantine, 10: 144-51.

Ondobo, M., P. Effa Onomo, J. Manga, J. Christian, D. Kouam and P. Djocgoue. 2017. Estimation of necrosis length, phenolic content, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activity in cocoa plants (Theobroma cacao L.) after Phytophthora megakarya inoculation. International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research, 10: 26-36.

Paul, P. K. and P. D. Sharma. 2002. Azadirachta indica leaf extract induces resistance in barley against leaf stripe disease. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 61: 3-13.

Pierre, E. O., N. Nicolas, F. o. D. Pierre, L. O. Martine and O. N. Denis. 2015. Heritability of polyphenols, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity of Cameroonian cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans. African Journal of Biotechnology, 14: 2672-82.

Pohe, J. and T. A. Agneroh. 2013. L’huile des graines de neem, un fongicide alternatif à l’oxyde de cuivre dans la lutte contre la pourriture brune des cabosses de cacaoyer en Côte d’Ivoire. Journal of Applied Biosciences, 62: 4644.

Randriantsalama, A. R., J. M. Randrianaivoarivony and V. L. Ramalanjaona. 2014. The use of chemical control and plant resistance against late blight of potato in Madagascar. African Crop Science Journal, 22: 959-68.

Régine, A. and D. Coderre. 2000. Abondance et diversité des foreurs de tiges et grains dans une biculture maïs-arachide au centre du Cameroun. African Crop Science Journal, 8: 365-68.

Reid, L. M., X. Zhu and B. L. Ma. 2001. Crop rotation and nitrogen effects on maize susceptibility to gibberella (Fusarium graminearum) ear rot. Plant and soil, 237: 1-14.

Robertson, A. E., L. Jesse, G. Munkvold, E. S. Rojas and D. S. Mueller. 2015. Physoderma brown spot and stalk rot of corn caused by Physoderma maydis in Iowa. Plant Health Progress, 16: 90-92.

Rouanet, G. 1984. The tropical agriculture technician: Corn. Paris, France.

Shabana, Y. M., M. E. Abdalla, A. A. Shahin, M. M. El-Sawy, I. S. Draz and A. W. Youssif. 2017. Efficacy of plant extracts in controlling wheat leaf rust disease caused by Puccinia triticina. Egyptian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 4: 67-73.

Shu, B., W. Wang, Q. Hu, J. Huang, M. Hu and G. Zhong. 2015. A comprehensive study on apoptosis induction by azadirachtin in Spodoptera frugiperda cultured cell line Sf9. Archives of insect biochemistry and physiology, 89: 153-68.

Shuping, D. S. S. 2016. Development of an antifungal product from Melianthus comosus (Melianthaceae) that can be used to control plant fungal pathogens, University of Pretoria.

Sikirou, R., S. Bello, B. Zocli and A. Adéfadjo. 2012. Efficacité du fongicide COGA 80 WP (Mancozèbe 800 g/kg) contre la cercosporiose de la laitue et le chancre de l’amarante. Rapport d’activité, LDC/INRAB, Bénin, 11.

Surendra, S., S. L. Godara, S. Gangopadhayay and K. S. Jadon. 2012. Induced resistance against Alternaria brassicae blight of mustard through plant extracts. Archives Of Phytopathology And Plant Protection, 45: 1705-14.

Thakur, M. and B. S. Sohal. 2013. Role of elicitors in inducing resistance in plants against pathogen infection: A review. ISRN Biochemistry, 2013: 1-10.

Tisdale, W. H. 1919. Physoderma disease of corn. Journal of Agricultural Research, 16: 137-54.

Tompkins, D. K., D. B. Fowler and A. T. Wright. 1992. Foliar disease development in no-till winter wheat: Influence of agronomic practices on powdery mildew development. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 72: 965-72.

Tonon, D., R. Sikirou, A. C. Adomou, V. Zinsou, B. Zocli, K. N’djolosse and S. Bello. 2018. Efficacité des fongicides Mancozèbe 80 WP et Chlorothalonil-Carbendazime 65 SC contre Colletotrichum gloeosporioides agent causal de l’anthracnose de l’anacardier au Bénin. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 11: 2093-105.

Van Kammen, A. and D. Brouwer. 1964. Increase of polyphenoloxidase activity by a local virus infection in uninoculated parts of leaves. Virology, 22: 9-14.

Velho, A. C., S. Alaniz, L. Casanova, P. Mondino and M. J. Stadnik. 2015. New insights into the characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with apple diseases in southern Brazil and Uruguay. Fungal Biology, 119: 229-44.

Vera, J., J. Castro, A. Gonzalez and A. Moenne. 2011. Seaweed polysaccharides and derived oligosaccharides stimulate defense responses and protection against pathogens in plants. Marine Drugs, 9: 2514-25.

Veresoglou, S. D., E. K. Barto, G. Menexes and M. C. Rillig. 2012. Fertilization affects severity of disease caused by fungal plant pathogens. Plant Pathology, 62: 961-69.

Wang, J., J. Li, J. Cao and W. Jiang. 2010. Antifungal activities of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel extracts on postharvest diseases in fruits. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 4: 1100-04.

William Norbert, K. T., N. D. Jules Patrice, E. O. Germain Gabriel, N. Bekolo, A. S. Thierry, H. Alain, T. T. Paul Martial and A. Zachée. 2018. Effects of foliar application of 24-epibrassinolide on growth and induction of resistance of maize plants to helminthosporiosis on the field. International Journal of Current Research in Biosciences and Plant Biology, 5: 61-73.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.33687/phytopath.010.02.3553


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Jules Patrice NGOH DOOH

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.