Molecular Characterization of Penicillium expansum Isolated from Grapes and its Management by Leaf Extract of Chenopodium murale
Penicillium expansum Link causes an economically important postharvest blue mold disease in a number of fruits and vegetables. In the present study, this fungus was isolated from rotted grapes and identified on morphological basis. Identification of the pathogen was further confirmed on molecular basis by using four different primer pairs namely ITS, β-tubulin, CMD and CF under accession numbers MN752155, MN787831, MN787832 and MN787833, respectively. Leaf extract of Chenopodium murale was assessed for its potential to control in vitro growth of P. expansum. For this purpose, leaves were extracted in methanol and after evaporation of the solvent, the resulting extract was successively partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol followed by antifungal bioassays with different concentrations (1.562 to 200 mg mL-1) each organic solvent fraction. Although all the fractions variably controlled the fungal pathogen, however, n-butanol fraction showed the highest antifungal activity causing 45–86% reduction in biomass of the pathogen. Ethyl acetate fraction was also highly antifungal and reduced fungal biomass by 44–81%. Chloroform and n-hexane fractions were comparatively less effective and reduced biomass of P. expansum by 30–72% and 11–44%, respectively. This study concludes that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions are highly antifungal in nature against P. expansum.
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