Phytochemical Composition, Antimicrobial Effect of Azadirachta indica and Carica papaya Extracts on Fungi Isolated From Gmelina arborea Seedling

Umana E. Johnson, Patrick I. Akwaji, Udo S. Effiong, Markson Aniedi-Abasi, Orok E. Effiom


Gmelina arborea Roxb has important economic value in Nigeria and worldwide. It has been used as timber, for pulp and paper, furniture, plywood and for particle board. Due to the menace caused by fungal diseases in nurseries and sites where the seedlings are raised and the observed disease severity at the Awi Gmelina Forestry Project Nursery in Cross River State, Nigeria. It became necessary to provide a viable environmentally friendly measure to curb the diseases, hence, a trial on the antifungal effects of leaf extracts of Carica papaya and Azadirachta indica in-vitro using different extract solvents on some pathogenic fungi isolated from Gmelina arborea seedlings. The isolated fungi were Trichoderma viride (from stem and leaf) and Mucor mucedo (stem and leaf). The solvents used were ethanol, methanol, propanol, butanol, acetone, chloroform and distilled water. Phytochemical screening of extracts of C. papaya from the different solvents showed that there was no tannin and hydroxymethyl anthraquinine. Flavonoids and polyphenols were in excess in acetone and methanol extracts respectively. For A. indica, polyphenols were only found in excess in ethanol and methanol extracts. Application of the extracts at different percentages of 0% (control), 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90% and 100% showed that Carica papaya extracted with butanol was more potent on Trichoderma viride and Mucor mucedo at 60%, 70%, 80% and 100% while the growth of Trichoderma viride and Mucor mucedo was checked by butanol extracts of A. indica at 70%, 80%, 90% and 100%. Conclusively, butanol extracts of C. papaya and A. indica at higher concentrations is recommended for use as spray to control the diseases.


Plant extracts; extract solvents; concentration; antimicrobial effect; Gmelina arborea seed


Adegbehin, J. O, J. O. Abayomi and L. B. Nwaigbo. 1988. Gmelina arborea in Nigeria. Com. For. Rev. 67(2): 159-166.

Alexopolous, C. J and C. W. Mins. 1989. Introductory Mycology, London, John Wiley and sons. Pp 224-228.

Barnett, H. L and B. B. Hunter. 1998. Illustrated genera of imperfect fungi (4th edition), St Paul Minnesota, The Amer. Phytopathol. Soc. Pre. USA.

Culei, K. W. 1982. Therapeutic action of medicinal plants on fungi. Microb. Meth. 6: 35-40.

Duke, J. A. 2002. Gmelina arborea Roxb. Purdue University, Centre for New Crops and plant products.

Dvorak, W. S. 2003. World view of Gmelina arborea opportunities and challenges. In recent advances with Gmelina arborea (eds. W .S. Dvorak, G. R. Hvdge, W.C. Woodbridge and J.C. Romeo) North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC. USA.

Epinoza, J. A. 2003. Site selection, site preparation, and weed control of Gmelina arborea. In recent advances with Gmelina arborea (eds. W .S. Dvorak, G. R. Hvdge, W. C. Woodbridge and J.C. Romeo) North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC. USA.

Lauridsen, E. B and N. Kjaer. 2002. Provenance research in Gmelina arborea Lin. Roxb. A summary of results from three decades of research and a discussion of how to use them. Inter. For. Rev. 4(1): 15.

Mahesh, B. and S. Satish. 2008. Antimicrobial activity of some important medicinal plants against plant and human pathogens. Wor. J. of Agricul. Sci. 4(5): 839-843.

Maragathavalli, S., S. Brinda, N. S. Kaviyarasi, B. Annadurai and S. K. Gangwar. 2012. “Antimicrobial Activity of in leaf extracts of Neem”, Inter. J. of Sci. and Nat. 3: 110-113.

Mbadianya, J. I., B. C. Echezona, K. I. Ugwuoke and R. C. Wokocha. 2013. Phytochemical constituents of some medicinal plants. Int. J. of Sci. and Res. (IJSR) Volume 2, Issue 4. ISSN: 2319-7064.

Olahan, G. S and J. E. Amadi. 2006. Fungicidal effect of Pawpaw (Carica papaya L.) leaf extracts on Fusarium verticilliodes. Afric. Sci. Vol.7, No.1.

Onifade, A. U. 2000. Anti fungal effect of Azadirachta indica A. juss extracts on Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Glo. J. of pure and Appl. Sci.vol.6, No.3: 425-428.

Sofowora, A. 1984. Medicinal plants and fractional medicine in Africa. New York, John Wiley and Sons Incorporated. 32p.

Trease, G. E and W. C. Evans. 1978. A textbook of pharmacognosy, 11th Edition. London, Bailliere Teindall, Pp. 56-58.

Udo, S. E, B. E. Madunagu, E. J. Umana, A. A. Markson and I. Takon. 2006. The efficacy of extracts from four oil seeds and an oil fruit as antimicrobial agents in comparison with known antibiotics. J. of Agricul. For. and the Soc. Sci. 4 (2): 119-125.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.33687/phytopath.003.03.0284


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2015 Umana E. Johnson, Patrick I. Akwaji, Udo S. Effiong, Markson Aniedi-Abasi, Orok E. Effiom

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.