Screening of Common Bean Genotypes for Their Resistance to Bean Stem Maggot (Ophiomyia Spp.) in Ethiopia

Mulatwa Wondimu


Common bean production in Africa faces various constraints, including biotic and abiotic stress. Among biotic stresses, bean stem maggots (BSM) (Ophiomyia spp.) are the most damaging insect pests of common beans in central and sub-Saharan Africa, especially under poor soils and dry conditions. Various control measures are available for bean stem maggots; however, there is insufficient information regarding the resistance of common bean genotypes to this pest. The present study aimed to identify sources of resistance to BSM in two groups of genotypes, namely red mottled and sugar bean, at Negelle Arsi and Shalla in Ethiopia during 2016 and 2017. A total of 111 genotypes with 56 belonging to the red mottled group and 55 to the sugar bean group were assessed for their resistance levels in open fields with a history of BSM infestation following randomized complete block design with three replications. In the 2016 assessment, 23 genotypes exhibited significantly lower numbers of dead seedlings and damage scores in both bean groups and locations. The results for the second year (2017) indicated that four genotypes from the red mottled group (DAB-365, DAB-398, DAB-449, and DAB-331) and four from sugar beans (DAB-500, DAB-512, DAB-483, and DAB-54) were moderately resistant to BSM in both locations. The combined findings from the 2016 and 2017 cropping seasons revealed that DAB-500, DAB-512, DAB-483, and DAB-541 from the red mottled group, and DAB-365, DAB-398, DAB-449, and DAB-331 from the sugar bean group, exhibited resistance to BSM at both locations. Therefore, based on the aforementioned information, these eight genotypes from both groups are recommended as potential sources of resistance to bean stem maggots for further common bean breeding purposes.


Bean stem maggots; Common bean production; Genotype resistance; Red mottled group; Sugar bean group.

Full Text:



Abate, T., 1990. Studies on genetic, cultural and insecticidal controls against the bean fly, Ophiomyia phaseoli (Tryon) (Diptera: Agromyzidae), in Ethiopia. Simon Fraser University, Canada.

Ali, K., Ahmed, S., Beniwal, S., Kenneni, G., Malhotra, R.S., Makkouk, K., 2006. Food and forage legumes in Ethiopia. Progress and prospects, proceedings of the workshop on food and forage legumes. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Ambachew, D., Mekbib, F., Asfaw, A., Beebe, S.E., Blair, M.W., 2015. Trait associations in common bean genotypes grown under drought stress and field infestation by BSM bean fly. The Crop Journal 3, 305-316.

Ampofo, J.O., Massomo, S.M., 1994. Some cultural strategies for bean fly (Diptera: Agromyzidae) management in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) fields in Tanzania. African Crop Science Journal 6, 351-356.

Ampofo, K., 2009. A brief on bean stem maggot (bean fly) in Africa.

Autrique, A., 1989. Bean pests in Burundi: their status and prospects for control. In proceedings of the first meeting o f the Pan-African working group on bean entomology, ed. JKO Ampofo 1-9. Cali: CIAT.

Byabagambi, S., Kyamanywa, S., 1997. Effects of some agronomic practices on bean infestation and damage by bean stem maggot. In African Crop Science Conference Proceedings.

Byabagambi, S., Kyamanywa, S., Ogenga-Latigo, M.W., 1999. Effect of fertiliser and mulching on bean infestation and damage by bean fly. African Crop Science Journal 7(4), 599-604.

Cortes, A.J., Monserrate, F.A., Ramírez-Villegas, J., Madriñán, S., Blair, M., 2013. Drought tolerance in wild plant populations: The case of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). PLOS ONE 8, 6289.

CSA (Central Statistical Agency), 2015. Report on area, production and farm management practice of belg season crops for private peasant holdings. The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Agricultural Sample Survey 2014/2015 (Vol. V, Statistical Bulletin 578). Ethiopia.

CSA (Central Statistical Agency). 2018. Federal democratic republic of Ethiopia. Agricultural sample survey 2018/2019., 2011. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Davies, G., 1990. Progress in research on bean stem maggots (Ophiomyia spp.) in Mozambique 208-219. In Bean Research Volume 5. (JB Smithson, ed.) Cali, Colombia: CIAT.

EPPA (Ethiopian Pulses Profile Agency). 2004. Ethiopian Export Promotion Agency Product Development and Market Research Directorate, Ethiopia. EPPA, Ethiopia 25.

Imru, A., 1985. Bean production in Ethiopia. Regional workshop on potential for field beans (Paseolus vulgaris L.) in west Asia and north Africa. Aleppo, Syria 56.

Kiptoo, G.J, Kinyua, M., Kiplagat, O., Wanjala, F., Kiptoo, M., Cheboi, J., Kimno, J., Rotich, G., Ngurwe, J.K., 2016. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties for resistance to bean stem maggot (Ophiomyia spp.) in Kenya, 2016. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture 12(3), 1-7.

Letourneau, D.K., 1994. Bean fly management practices and biological control in Malawian subsistence agriculture. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 50, 103-11.

MOARD (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development), 2009. Crop Development. Issue No.3.Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. (2009).

Mulatwa, W., Emana, G., Sisay, K., Amare, F., 2017. Aging effect of two-decade old technologies of bean stem maggot (Ophiomyia spp.) management options in Ethiopia: Baseline information generation for future research direction. Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology and Sustainable Development 9, 16-21

Munyasa, A.J., 2013. Evaluation of drought tolerance mechanisms in Meso American dry bean genotypes. University of Nairobi, Nairobi.

Nderitu, J.H., Kayumbo, H.Y., Mueke, J.M., 1990. Bean fly infestation on common beans Phaseolus vulgaris in Kenya. Insect Science and its Application 11, 35-41.

Ochilo, W.N., Nyamasyo, G.H., 2011. Pest status of bean stem maggot (Ophiomyia spp.) and black bean aphid (Aphis fabae) in Taita district, Kenya [Situación de las plagas Del frijol: Gusano del Tallo. Tropical and Subtropical Agro Ecosystems 13, 91-97.

Odendo, M., David, S., Otsyula, R., 2005. Impact of root-rot resistant bean varieties in western Kenya: Application of Impact Diagramming. PABRA Millennium Workshop.

Ojwang, P.P.O., Melis, R., Songa, J.M., Githiri, M., 2010. Genotypic response of common bean genotypes to natural field populations of bean fly (Ophiomyia phaseoli) under diverse environmental conditions. Field Crops Resistance 117, 139-145.

Sithanantham, S., 1989. Status of bean entomology in Zambia. In proceedings of the first meeting of the Pan-African working group on bean entomology, education. JKO Ampofo 17-20.

Tsedeke, A., 1990. Studies on genetics, cultural and insecticidal control against the bean fly, Ophiomyia phaseoli (Tryon) Diptera: Agromyzidae), in Ethiopia. PhD thesis, Simon Fraser University, Burraby, BC, Canada 177.

Wang, J., Gai, J., 2001. Mixed inheritance model for resistance to agromyzid bean fly (Melanagromyza sojae Zehntner) in soybean. Euphytica 122, 9-18.

Wilson, N., Shimelis, H., Melis, R., Chirwa, R., Mzengeza, T., Mathew, I., Shayanowako, A., 2021. Selection for bean fly (Ophiomyia spp) resistance and agronomic performance in selected common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) accessions. Crop Protection 140, 105404.



  • There are currently no refbacks.