Characterization of Mycoflora Associated with the Rhizosphere of Rice Crop from Selected Sites in District Gujranwala, Punjab, Pakistan

Noor Fatima, Samina Sarwar, Muhammad Shahbaz, Muhamma Hanif, Nousheen Youosaf, Amina Abrar


Rice (Oryza sativa) belongs to the family Poaceae, and it holds great significance as a staple food crop in Pakistan and worldwide. The impact of mycoflora attacks on the rice crop is particularly critical, as it leads to a reduction in its production within Pakistan. Therefore, it is essential to isolate and identify the mycoflora associated with rice soil in the rich rice-growing regions of Pakistan. To accomplish this, soil samples were collected from two regions: Ghakhar and Rahwali in District Gujranwala, Punjab, Pakistan. The analysis of these soil samples revealed specific characteristics for each region. For Ghakhar, the pH was 8, electrical conductivity (EC) was 8.5 ds m-1, phosphorous content was 45 kg/h, nitrogen content was 65 kg/h, and organic carbon content was 0.6%. Similarly, for Rahwali, the pH was 8.5, EC was 2.5 ds m-1, phosphorous content was 39 kg/h, nitrogen content was 61 kg/h, and organic carbon content was 0.5%. The isolated soil samples were employed to extract mycoflora using the direct plate method. The fungal strains thus obtained were characterized based on their macroscopic and microscopic features. The outcomes revealed the isolation of a total of 11 distinct fungal species from both regions. Among these 11 species, three belonged to the Aspergillus genus (A. niger, A. orchraceus, and A. flavus), one was identified as Alternaria alternata, another as Bipolaris sorokiniana, one as Aureobasidium pullulans, one as Candida albicans, one as Fusarium oxysporum, one as Penicillium spp., one as Rhizopus oryzae, and the last one as Trichoderma spp. This study sheds light on the diversity and prevalence of these 11 fungal species isolated from rice soil. It contributes to our comprehension of the fungal community within the rice cultivation environment. Further detailed studies are required to explore the molecular basis of these findings.


Fungal diversity; soil analysis; direct palate method; microscopy

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