Assessing the Resistance of Different Chili Genotypes to Chili Leaf Curl Virus (Chilcv) and Evaluating Insecticides for Controlling its Vector, Bemisia Tabaci

Azher Mustafa, Saima Naseer, Salman Ahmad, Hafiz Muhammad Aatif, Azhar Abbas Khan, Zeshan Hassan, Ch. Muhammad Shahis Hanif, Saba Saeed, Javed Anwar Shah, Yasir Ali


The production of chili in Pakistan is currently facing a significant threat from Chili leaf curl virus (ChiLCV). A study was conducted in the crop growing seasons 2019-2020 and 2020-2021 at Ayub Agriculture Research Institute Faisalabad to assess the susceptibility and resistance of nine chili genotypes to ChiLCV. Each genotype was replicated three times by using the Randomized Complete Block Design. Weekly documentation was carried out to record the incidence and severity of the disease. During the first and second crop growing seasons, it was observed that, Tarapuri (78%, 76.9%), CH 107 (67.8%, 63.7%), Talhari (65.7%, 56.8%), CH 109 (52.7%, 54.4%), CH 108 (50.8, 51.1), and GSL-111 (42.6%, 39.5%) genotypes showed susceptible response to ChiLCV. The two genotypes Hybrid-46 (17.7%, 18.5%) and Hot Queen (15.5%, 13.4%) exhibited a moderately resistant response and only one genotype CBS1292 (40.7%, 39.1%) showed a moderately susceptible response against ChiLCV. The results of the screening experiment indicated that a majority of chili varieties exhibit susceptibility to chili leaf curl disease and the most of the germplasm is deficient in terms of providing protection against the disease. In addition, another study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of five insecticides, namely Acephate 75 SP, Emamectin, Imidacloprid, Diafenthiuron, and a combination of these insecticides, in managing percent disease incidence, reducing whitefly population, and enhancing crop yield. Among the various insecticides evaluated, Diafenthiuron exhibited the highest efficacy in reducing disease incidence (7.70%, 6.66%), reducing white fly population (1.80, 1.56), and increasing the yield of green fruit (120.71, 132.52q/ha) followed by combination of all of these inecticides, Imidacloprid, Emamectin, and Acephate during both crop growing seasons. This approach has proved a high level of safety and ecological compatibility, and it appeared to be a practical disease management tool.


Chilli leaf curl virus; chilli, control; insecticides; disease severity; whitefly population.

Full Text:



Ahmad, S., Yousaf, M., Anjum, R., Raza, W., Ali, Y., Rehman, M.A., 2021a. Evaluation of fungicides against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici the cause of Fusarium wilt of tomato. Journal of Plant and Environment 3(2), 125-135.

Ahmad, S., Yousaf, M., Anjum, R., Raza, W., Rehman, M.A., Ali, Y., 2021b. Prevalence of Fusarium wilt of tomato in major tomato growing areas of Punjab, Pakistan. International Journal of Phytopathology 10(3), 225-230.

Ahmed, M.H., Ashfaq, M., Mukhtar, T., Khan, M.A., 2021. Categorization of available cucumber genotypes against Zucchini yellow mosaic virus and root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 25 (5), 955-961.

Ali, Y., Raza, A., Aatif, H.M., Ijaz, M., Ul-Allah, S., Rehman, S.U., Mahmoud, S.Y., Farrag, E.S.H., Amer M.A., Moustafa, M., 2022. Regression modeling strategies to predict and manage Potato leaf roll virus disease incidence and its vector. Agriculture 12(4), 550.

Anonymous, 2020. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Agriculture Statistics of Pakistan, Government of Pakistan.

Asghar, A., Mukhtar, T., Raja, M.U., Gulzar, A., 2020. Interaction between Meloidogyne javanica and Ralstonia solanacearum in chili. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 52(4), 1525-1530.

Ashfaq, M., Iqbal, S., Mukhtar, T., Shah, H., 2014. Screening for resistance to Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus in chilli pepper. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 24 (3), 791-795.

Ashfaq, M., Khan, M.A., Mughal, S.M., Javed, N., Mukhtar, T., Bashir, M., 2007. Evaluation of urdbean germplasm for resistance against Urdbean leaf crinkle virus. Pakistan Journal of Botany 39(6), 2103-2111.

Asif, M., Atiq, M., Bashir, M.R., Yasin, O., Rajput, N.A., Ali, Y., Subhani, A., Kausar, S., Imran, M., Hameed, A., Ali, S., 2018. Bio-chemical alterations: markers for the identification of source of resistance in brassica germplasm against white rust. International Journal of Biosciences 13(1), 364-376.

Aslam, M.N., Mukhtar, T., 2023a. Characterization of Ralstonia solanacearum causing bacterial wilt from major chili growing areas of Pakistan. Bragantia 82, e20230001.

Aslam, M.N., Mukhtar, T., 2023b. Distributional spectrum of bacterial wilt of chili incited by Ralstonia solanacearum in Pakistan. Bragantia 82, e20220196.

Aslam, M.N., Mukhtar, T., Ashfaq, M., Hussain, M.A., 2017. Evaluation of chili germplasm for resistance to bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. Australasian Plant Pathology 46(3), 289-292.

Azeem, W., Mukhtar, T., Hamid, T., 2021. Evaluation of Trichoderma harzianum and Azadirachta indica in the management of Meloidogyne incognita in tomato. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 53(1), 119-125.

Chavan, A.K., Choudhary, R.S., Narwade, R.B., Autade, R.H., 2015. Identification of tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV) strain causing ToLCV in tomato and chilli. International Journal of Science and Research 4(8), 1713-1716.

Daunde, A.T., Khandare, V.S., 2020. Integrated approach for the management of Chilli leaf Curl virus (ChiLCV) disease of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.). Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Biosciences 8(6), 556-564.

Devi, H.C., Devi, K.S., Sanabam, R., Pathaw, N., Devi, O.P., Chanu, N.T., Maibam, A., Chanu, W.T.J., Sanasam, S.S. Roy and C.P. Devi. 2023. Simplified extraction protocol for plant tissues and reverse transcription RPA assay for quick and reliable diagnosis and its application in resistance screening of Chilli veinal mottle virus. Crop Protection 170, p.106280.

Dorantes, L., Colmenero, R., Hernandez, R.H., Mota, L., Jaramillo, M.E., Fernandez, E., Solano, C., 2000. Inhibition of growth of some foodborne pathogenic bacteria by capsicum annum extracts. International Journal of Food Microbiology 57(1), 125-128.

Haq, M.A., Mukhtar, T., Haq, M.I., Khalid, A., 2022. Reproduction of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, on Solanum melongena genotypes determines their host status. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 54 (5), 20972103.

Hussain, M.S., Atiq, M., 2017. Susceptibility of chilli lines/varieties towards Chilli leaf curl virus and its management through vector control. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology 29(1), 17-22.

İnceoren, N., Akay, F., Nas, C., Deveci, E., Kızıl, G., Kızıl, M., 2023. Antiglycative effect of combination of extracts of Capsicum annuum (chilli) and pyridoxamine against Glycation in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes in rats. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 23, 1-16.

Iqbal, S., Ashfaq, M., Shah, H., Haq, M.I., Aziz-Ud-Din., 2012. Prevalence and distribution of Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) in major chilli growing areas of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 44(5), 1749-1754.

Iqbal, U., Mukhtar, T., 2020. Evaluation of biocontrol potential of seven indigenous Trichoderma species against charcoal rot causing fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina. Gesunde Pflanzen 72(2), 195–202.

Jafir, M., Shehzad, M., Abbas, Q., Nazeer, J., Ahmad, A.A., Ali, Y., Aftab, M., Javed, M.W., 2018. Germplasm screening of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) cultivars for resistance to sucking insect pests. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 6, 1134-1137.

Khan, M.A., Ali, Y., Abbas, H.Z., Atiq, M., 2018. Spatio-temporal patterns of Mungbean yellow mosaic virus and white fly population in relation to epidemiological factors. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 20(12), 2812-2816.

Kraft, K.H., Brown, C.H., Nabhan, G.P., Leudeling, E., Luna Ruiz, J.D.J., Eeckenbrugge, G.C.D., Hijmans, R.J., Gepts, P., 2014. Multiple lines of evidence for the origin of domesticated chilli pepper, Capsicum annum, in Mexico. PNAS 111(17), 6165-6170.

Meghvansi, M.K., Siddiqui, S., Khan, H., Gupta, V.K., Vairale, M.G., Gogo, H.K., Singh, L., 2010. Naga chilli: a potential source of capsaicinoids with broad-spectrum ethnopharmacological applications. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 132, 1-14.

Mishra, M., Verma, R.K., Pandey, V., Srivastava, A., Sharma, P., Gaur, R.K., Ali, A., 2022. Role of diversity and recombination in the emergence of Chilli leaf curl virus. Pathogens 11, 529-534.

Mukhtar, T., Kayani, M.Z., 2020. Comparison of the damaging effects of Meloidogyne incognita on a resistant and susceptible cultivar of cucumber. Bragantia 79(1), 83-93.

Mukhtar, T., Tariq-Khan, M., Aslam, M.N., 2021. Bioefficacy of Trichoderma Species against Javanese root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica in green gram. Gesunde Pflanzen 73(3), 265-272.

Mukhtar, T., Vagelas, I., Javaid, A., 2023. Editorial: New trends in integrated plant disease management. Frontiers in Agronomy. 4:1104122. doi: 10.3389/fagro.2022.11041221

Murtza, A., Bokhari, S.A., Ali, Y., Ahmad, T., Habib, A., Mazhar, K., Hussain, M., Randhawa, S., 2017. Anti-fungal potential of chilli germplasm against Fusarium wilt. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology 29(1), 57-61.

Naseer, S., Nadeem, I., Mustafa, A., Shah, J.A., Ahmed, S., Saqib, M., Abbas, T., Ali, Y., 2021. Management of Tomato leaf curl virus and its Bemisia tabaci vector in relation to prevailing environmental conditions of Faisalabad. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology 33(2), 313-324.

Nigam, K., Suhail, S., Verma, Y., Singh, V., Gupta, S., 2015. Molecular characterization of begomovirus associated with leaf curl disease in chilli. World Journal of Pharmacutical Research 4, 1579-1592.

Prasanna, H.C., Sinha, D.P., Verma, A., Singh, M., Singh, B., Rai, M., Martin, D.P., 2010. The population genomics of begomoviruses: global scale population structure and gene flow. Virology Journal 7(1), 1-12.

Roy, B., Venu, E., Kumar, S., Dubey, S., Lakshman, D., Mandal, B., Sinha, P., 2023. Leaf curl epidemic risk in chilli as a consequence of vector migration rate and contact rate dynamics: a critical guide to management. Viruses 15(4), 854-59.

Saba, S., Mukhtar, T., Haq, M.I., Malik, S.I., 2022. Occurrence of damping off of chili caused by Pythium spp. in the Pothwar region of Pakistan. International Journal of Phytopathology 11 (2), 125-234.

Saeed, M., Mukhtar, T., Haq, M.I., Khan, M.A., 2021. Assessment of nematicidal potential of Cannabis sativa and Azadirachta indica in the management of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) on peach. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 58(5), 1555-1561.

Senanayake, D.M.J.B., Varma, A., Mandal, B., 2012. Virus–vector relationships, host range, detection and sequence comparison of Chilli leaf curl virus associated with an epidemic of leaf curl disease of chilli in Jodhpur, India. Journal of Phytopathology 160(3), 146-155.

Shahbaz, M., Akram, A., Raja, N.I., Mukhtar, T., Mehak, A., Fatima, N., Ajmal, M., Ali, K., Mustafa, N., Abasi, F. 2023. Antifungal activity of green synthesized selenium nanoparticles and their effect on physiological, biochemical, and antioxidant defense system of mango under mango malformation disease. PLOS ONE 18(2), e0274679.

Shahbaz, M.U., Mukhtar, T., Haque, M.I., Begum, N., 2015. Biochemical and serological characterization of Ralstonia solanacearum associated with chilli seeds from Pakistan. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 17 (1), 31-40.

Talukder, M.M.R., Riazzudin, M., Mahmud, E., Uddin, M.S., Khan, M.S.I., 2012. Management of leaf curl disease of chilli by using chemicals and barrier crop. International Journal of Sustainable Crop Production, 7(2), 9-11.

Tariq-Khan, M., Mukhtar, T., Munir, A., Hallmann, J., Heuer, H., 2020. Comprehensive report on the prevalence of root-knot nematodes in the Poonch division of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Journal of Phytopathology 168, 322-336.

Thakur, H., Jindal, S.K., Sharma, A., Dhaliwal, M.S., 2018. Chilli leaf curl virus disease: a serious threat for chilli cultivation. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 125, 239-249.

Udiarto, B.K., Setiawati, W., Muharam, A., 2023. Seedling protection and barrier crops in chili pepper to reduce whitefly denseness and prevalence of pepper yellow leaf curl virus. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 1172: p. 012029. IOP Publishing.

Verma, V.K., Rymbai, H., Baiswar, P., 2023. Genetic Resources of Vegetable Crops: A Potential Source of Nutrition and Entrepreneurship in North-Eastern Region of India. In Vegetables for Nutrition and Entrepreneurship (pp. 311-338). Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore.

Zeeshan, M., Mukhtar, T., Haq, M.I., Asad, M.J., 2023. Incidence, characterization and pathogenic variability of Fusarium oxysporum in the Punjab province of Pakistan. International Journal of Phytopathology 12(1), 1-11.



  • There are currently no refbacks.