Muhammad Asif Akram, Muhammad Sajid, Aqeel Ahmad, Muhammad Waqar, Samina Kusar, Atfa Iqbal, Muhammad Usama Latif


Heavy metal toxicity is one of the major abiotic stresses leading to hazardous effects in plants. Ascorbic acid is regarded as one of the most effective antioxidants present in plants. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effect of foliar spray of ascorbic acid on nodulation, gas exchange attributes, and mineral ion contents of pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars under zinc stress. Seeds of two pea cultivars cv. 2001-40 and cv. Meteor were sown in pots following a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replicates. Treatments of ZnSO4.7H2O (5 and 10 mg kg-1) were applied through the rooting medium whereas ascorbic acid (5 ppm and 10 ppm) as foliar sprays after three weeks of germination. Results revealed that zinc stress reduced the growth, gas exchange attributes, potassium and calcium contents of roots and shoots of both the pea cultivars. However, foliar spray of ascorbic acid counteracted the adverse effect of zinc stress on the growth of both pea cultivars. The application of 10 mg kg-1 ascorbic acid proved to be more effective in inducing zinc stress tolerance as compared to other levels. Growth and gas exchange attributes of zinc-stressed plants of both cultivars were also enhanced due to foliar applied ascorbic acid which was positively associated with mineral ion contents. Overall, foliar-applied ascorbic acid ameliorated the adverse effect of zinc stress on nodulation and growth attributes of pea cultivars.


Pea; Ascorbic acid; Zinc sulphate; Heavy metal stress; Gas exchange attributes; Nodule; Mineral ion contents.

Full Text:



Allen, J.R.L., Rae, J.E., 1986. Time sequence of metal pollution, Severn Estuary, southwestern UK. Marine Pollution Bulletin 17, 427-431.

Ashraf, K., Imtiaz, K.A., Komal, H., 2015. Response of pea varieties to insect pests in Peshawar. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 3, 403-407.

Choi, J.M., Pak, C.H., Lee, C.W., 1996. Micronutrient toxicity in French marigold. Journal of Plant Nutrition 19, 901-916.

Doncheva, S., Stoynova, Z., Velikova, V., 2001. Influence of succi-nate on zinc toxicity of pea plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition 24, 789-804.

Duzdemir, O., Kurunc, A., Unlukara, A., 2009. Response of pea (Pisum sativum) to salinity and irrigation water regime. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science 12, 409-412.

El-Bassiouny, H.S.M., Bakry, B.A., Attia, A.A.E.M., Abd Allah, M.M., 2014. Physiological role of humic acid and nicotinamide on improving plant growth, yield, and mineral nutrient of wheat (Triticum durum) grown under newly reclaimed sandy soil. Agricultural Sciences 5, 687-700.

Elena, C.T., Daniela, N.G., Iulia, B.C., Gabriela, V.V., 2013. Zinc-induced genotoxic effects in root meristems of barley seedling. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 41, 150-156.

Ewais, A.E., 2003. Physiological responses of broad bean plants to cadmium and lead and their antagonism by the antioxidant ascorbic acid and calcium. Journal of the Faculty of Education 28, 207-224.

Farhana, N., Humaira, G., Muhammad, H., Aqib, S., Husna, Sikander, S.K., 2014. Effect of NaCl stress on Pisum sativum germination and seedling growth with the influence of seed priming with potassium (KCl and KOH). International Journal of Biological Sciences 3, 21-27.

Farshad, S.L., Jalil, K.S., Mojtaba, F., 2013. Effect of various concentrations of zinc on chlorophyll, starch, soluble sugars and proline in Naked pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo). International Journal of Farming and Allied Sciences 24, 1198-1202.

Gyana, R., Premananda, D., 2003. Effect of metal toxicity on plant growth and metabolism. Agronomy Science 23, 3-11.

Hanan, H.L., 2014. Physiological response of Pisum sativum plant to exogensious ABA application under drought condition. Pakistan Journal of Botany 46, 973-982.

Hussein, M.M., El-Gereadly, N.H.M., Eidesuki, M., 2006. Role of puterscine in resistance to salinity of pea plants (Pisum sativum L.). Journal of Applied Sciences Research 2, 598-604.

Mangrio, N., Kandhro, M.N., Soomro, A.A., Mari, N., Shah, Z.-u.-H., 2020. Growth, Yield and Sucrose Percent Response of Sugarcane to Zinc and Boron Application. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture 36.

Mohsen, A.A., Mohsen, E.H.K., Wael, G.F.S., 2014. Role of ascorbic acid on germination indexes and enzyme activity of Vicia faba seeds grown under salinity stress. Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry 10, 62-77.

Noman, A., Ali, S., Naheed, F., Ali, Q., Farid, M., Rizwan, M., Irshad, M.K., 2015. Foliar application of ascorbate enhances the physiological and biochemical attributes of maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars under drought stress. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 61, 1659-1672.

Pastori, G.M., Kiddle, G., Antoniw, J., Bernard, S., Veljovic-Jovanovic, S., Verrier, P.J., Noctor, G., Foyer, C.H., 2003. Leaf vitamin C contents modulate plant defense transcripts and regulate genes that control development through hormone signaling. The Plant Cell 15, 939-951.

Popy, R.R., Tahjib, M.U.A., Tahmina, A., Shuma, R.R., Sayed, M.A., 2016. Exogenous ascorbic acid and hydrogen peroxide alleviates salt-induced oxidative stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by enhancing antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content. Advances in Environmental Biology 10, 148-154.

Romero-Puertas, M.C., Rodriquez-Serrano, M., Corpas, F.J., Gomez, M., Del Rio, L.A., Sandalio, L.M., 2004. Cadmium induced subcellular accumulation of O2 and H2O2 in pea leaves. Plant, Cell & Environment 27, 1122-1134.

Rout, M.P., Aitchison, J.D., Magnasco, M.O., Chait, B.T., 2003. Virtual gating and nuclear transport: the whole picture. Trends in Cell Biology 13, 622-628.

Salehi, S.A., Shahadneghad, M., 2014. Response of application zinc sulphate and ascorbic acid on Gazania plants. International Journal of Biological Sciences 1, 54-59.

Sheteawi, S.A., 2007. Improving growth and yield of salt-stressed soybean by exogenous application of jasmonic acid and ascobin. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 9, 473-478.

Siddika, S., Mansura, F., Hasan, M., 2013. Physico-mechanical properties of jute-coir fiber reinforced hybrid polypropylene composites. Engineering and Technology 73, 1145-1149.

Smirnoff, N., 2000. Ascorbic acid: Metabolism and functions of a multifaceted molecule. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 3, 229-235.

Van Assche, F., Cardinaels, C., Clijsters, H., 1998. Induction of enzyme capacity on plants as a result of heavy metal Toxicity, dose response relations in Phaseolus vulgaris L. treated with cadmium. Environmental Pollution 6, 103-115.

Vijayarengan, P., Mahalakshmi, G., 2013. Zinc toxicity in tomato plants. World Applied Sciences Journal 24, 649-653.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33804/pp.006.02.4201


  • There are currently no refbacks.