Judith Kiptoo, Aqleem Abbas, Ayesha Munawar Bhatti, Hafiz Muhammad Usman, Munsif Ali Shad, Muhammad Umer, Muhammad Nauman Atiq, Shariq Mahmood Alam, Muhammad Ateeq, Moman Khan, Nderitu Wangari Peris, Zarafshan Razaq, Naureen Anwar, Shehzad Iqbal


Potatoes are an annual and the most cultivated tuberous crop worldwide. Potatoes play an important role to fulfil the world’s basic food requirements because of enriched nutrients and delicious taste. Rhizoctonia solani is the most virulent and widely distributed soil-borne fungus that causes severe yield losses of potatoes globally. Several management practices have been adopted to overcome the yield losses inflicted by this fungus. Biocontrol agents play a significant role as mycoparasites and activate defense mechanisms through disease resistance genes to suppress pathogens. Compost is also applied as a soil amendment that increases soil fertility through the addition of organic matter in soil and nutrients uptake in organic form. Besides, it is a rich source of carbon and nitrogen which can address soil erosion, nutrients and organic matter depletion issues and restores soil fertility by adding organic matter and reducing the incidence of soil-borne pathogens in the soil.  Biochar utilization in the agriculture sector is increasing day by day because of its great potential for disease suppression. Both biochar and compost are used commercially to improve plant growth and suppress potato diseases caused by R. solani. Therefore, in this review, we discussed the symptoms on potatoes, epidemiology and biological characteristics of R. solani and summarized to date control strategies mainly focusing on biological, chemical, biochar and compost approaches.


Plant pathology; Biochar; biocontrol

Full Text:



Abbas, M.F., Hameed, S., Rauf, A., Nosheen, Q., Ghani, A., Qadir, A., Zakia, S., 2012. Incidence of six viruses in potato growing areas of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology 24, 44-47.

Abd El-Aziz, A.R.M., Mahmoud, M.A., Al-Othman, M.R., El-Sherif, E.M., El-Marzouky, H., 2013. Differential interaction between isolates of Rhizoctonia solani AG-3 and potato cultivars. African Journal of Microbiology Research 7, 1045-1054.

Abo-Elnaga, H.I.G., Mohamed, A.A., El-Fawy, M.M., Amein, A.M., 2012. Influence of certain animal manures on incidence of stem canker and black scurf disease on potato. Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences 8, 231-237.

Abou -El-Nour, M.M., Mona, E.A.D.S., Wadi, J.M., 2020. Suppressive effect of compost/pomegranate peel tea combination against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lupini, and Rhizoctonia solani as an alternative synthetic fungicide. The Egyptian Journal of Experimental Biology 16, 13-25.

Ahmad, I., Iftikhar, S., Soomro, M.H., Khalid, S., Munir, A., 1995. Diseases of potato in Northern Areas during 1992, in: CDRI-PSPDP, P., Islamabad, Pakistan (Ed.), pp. 1-38.

Ahmed, B., Sultana, M., Chowdhury, M.A.H., Akhter, S., Alam, M.J., 2017. Growth and yield performance of potato varieties under different planting dates. Bangladesh Agronomy Journal 20, 25-29.

Ahmed, R., Gondal, A.S., Khan, M.T., Shahzaman, S., Hyder, S., 2018. First report of Botrytis cinerea causing gray mold disease on peach from Pakistan. International Journal of Phytopathology 7, 131-131.

Ahmed, Z.M., Dawar, S., Tariq, M., 2009. Fungicidal potential of some local tree seeds for controlling root rot disease. Pakistan Journal of Botany 41, 1439-1444.

Akhter, A., Hage-Adnan, K., Soja, G., Steinkellner, S., 2015. Compost and biochar alter mycorrhization, tomato root exudation, and development of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Frontiers in Plant Science 6, 1-13.

Al-Fadhal, F.A., AL-Abedy, A.N., Alkhafije, D.A., 2019. Isolation and molecular identification of Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani isolated from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and their control feasibility by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control 29, 1-11.

Al-Mughrabi, K.I., 2008. Salicylic acid induces resistance in potatoes against Rhizoctonia solani, the cause of black scurf and stem canker. International Journal of Biological Chemistry 2, 14-25.

Al-Rahmah, A.N., Mostafa, A.A., Abdel-Megeed, A., Yakout, S.M., Hussein, S.A., 2013. Fungicidal activities of certain methanolic plant extracts against tomato phytopathogenic fungi. African Journal of Microbiology Research 7, 517-524.

Al‐Saikhan, M.S., Howard, L.R., Miller Jr, J.C., 1995. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in different genotypes of potato (Solanum tuberosum, L.). Journal of Food Science 60, 341-343.

Alptekin, Y., 2011. Integrated pest management of potatoes. Agricultural Sciences 2, 297-300.

Ansari, T., Asif, M., Khan, A., Tariq, M., Ahmad, F., Khan, F., Siddiqui, M.A., 2020. Effect of combined soil application of biochar and oilcakes on Meloidogyne incognita infesting lentil (Lens culinaris cv. Desi). Indian Phytopathology 73, 367-370.

Antal, Z., Manczinger, L., Szakacs, G., Tengerdy, R.P., Ferenczy, L., 2000. Colony growth, in vitro antagonism and secretion of extracellular enzymes in cold-tolerant strains of Trichoderma species. Mycological Research 104, 545-549.

Asad, S.A., Ali, N., Hameed, A., Khan, S.A., Ahmad, R., Bilal, M., Shahzad, M., Tabassum, A., 2014. Biocontrol efficacy of different isolates of Trichoderma against soil borne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Polish Journal of Microbiology 8, 95-103.

Bains, P.S., Bennypaul, H.S., Lynch, D.R., Kawchuk, L.M., Schaupmeyer, C.A., 2002. Rhizoctonia disease of potatoes (Rhizoctonia solani): Fungicidal efficacy and cultivar susceptibility. American Journal of Potato Research 79, 99-106.

Baker, K.F., 2020. Types of Rhizoctonia diseases and their occurrence, Rhizoctonia solani, Biology and Pathology. University of California Press, pp. 125-148.

Bokhari, A.A., Sahi, S.T., Khan, M.A., Ahmad, R., Din, I.U., 2008. In vivo studies on the biological and chemical control of guava decline caused by different soil borne pathogens. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 45, 54-56.

Bolton, M.D., Panella, L., Campbell, L., Khan, M.F.R., 2010. Temperature, moisture, and fungicide effects in managing Rhizoctonia root and crown rot of sugar beet. Phytopathology 100, 689-697.

Bonanomi, G., D’Ascoli, R., Scotti, R., Gaglione, S.A., Caceres, M.G., Sultana, S., Scelza, R., Rao, M.A., Zoina, A., 2014. Soil quality recovery and crop yield enhancement by combined application of compost and wood to vegetables grown under plastic tunnels. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 192, 1-7.

Bonanomi, G., Ippolito, F., Scala, F., 2015. A"black" future for plant pathology? Biochar as a new soil amendment for controlling plant diseases. Journal of Plant Pathology 97, 223-234.

Carling, D.E., Leiner, R.H., 1986. Isolation and characterization of Rhizoctonia solani and binucleata R. solani-like fungi from aerial stems and subterranean organs of potato plants. Phytopathology 76, 725-729.

Carling, D.E., Leiner, R.H., 1990. Effect of temperature on virulence of Rhizoctonia solani and other Rhizoctonia on potato. Phytopathology 80, 930-934.

Cherkupally, R., Kota, S.R., Amballa, H., Reddy, B.N., 2017. In vitro antifungal potential of plant extracts against Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. Annals of Plant Sciences 6, 1676-1680.

Daami-Remadi, M., Zammouri, S., El Mahjoub, M., 2008. Effect of the level of seed tuber infection by Rhizoctonia solani at planting on potato growth and disease severity. The African Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology 2, 34-38.

Das, S., Shah, F.A., Butler, R.C., Falloon, R.E., Stewart, A., Raikar, S., Pitman, A.R., 2014. Genetic variability and pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani associated with black scurf of potato in N ew Zealand. Plant Pathology 63, 651-666.

De Ceuster, T.J.J., Hoitink, H.A.J., 1999. Using compost to control plant diseases. BioCycle 40, 61-64.

Elad, Y., David, D.R., Harel, Y.M., Borenshtein, M., Kalifa, H.B., Silber, A., Graber, E.R., 2010. Induction of systemic resistance in plants by biochar, a soil-applied carbon sequestering agent. Phytopathology 100, 913-921.

Elmer, W.H., Pignatello, J.J., 2011. Effect of biochar amendments on mycorrhizal associations and Fusarium crown and root rot of asparagus in replant soils. Plant Disease 95, 960-966.

Escande, A.R., Echandi, E., 1991. Protection of potato from Rhizoctonia canker with binucleate Rhizoctonia fungi. Plant Pathology 40, 197-202.

Gao, Y., Lu, Y., Lin, W., Tian, J., Cai, K., 2019. Biochar suppresses bacterial wilt of tomato by improving soil chemical properties and shifting soil microbial community. Microorganisms 7, 1-16.

Gonzalez, M., Pujol, M., Metraux, J., Gonzalez‐Garcia, V., Bolton, M.D., Borrás‐Hidalgo, O., 2011. Tobacco leaf spot and root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn. Molecular Plant Pathology 12, 209-216.

Haneef, N., Arif, M., Tariq-Khan, M., 2021. Detection of major soil-borne viruses and assessment of virus-vector association in potato growing areas of north-western Pakistan (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) and Azad Jammu and Kashmir. International Journal of Phytopathology 10, 141-154.

Hoitink, H.A.J., Inbar, Y., Boehm, M.J., 1991. Status of compost-amended potting mixes naturally suppressive to soilborne diseases of floricultural crops. Plant Disease 75, 869-873.

Hoitink, H.A.J., Stone, A.G., Han, D.Y., 1997. Suppression of plant diseases by composts. HortScience 32, 184-187.

Hussain, A., Awan, M.S., Khan, S.W., Anees, M., Ali, S., Abbas, Q., Ali, Z., 2014. Bioefficacy of botanical extracts and bioagents against sclerotial isolates of Rhizoctonia solani. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences 4, 370-380.

Islam, M.R., Chhoa, M.l., Ismail, H., Meah, M.B., 2013. Compost tea and poultry litter extract: alternative organic management approaches for stem canker of potato caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Journal of Agricultural Science (Toronto) 5, 261-272.

Jaiswal, A.K., Elad, Y., Graber, E.R., Frenkel, O., 2014. Rhizoctonia solani suppression and plant growth promotion in cucumber as affected by biochar pyrolysis temperature, feedstock and concentration. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 69, 110–118

Jeger, M.J., Hide, G.A., Van Den Boogerrt, P.H.J.F., Termorshuizen, A.J., Van Baarlen, P., 1996. Pathology and control of soil-borne fungal pathogens of potato. Potato Research 39, 437-469.

Juzepchuk, S.V., Bukasov, M.S., 1929. A contribution to the question of the origin of the potato, Proceedings of U.S.S.R. Congress of Genetics, Plant and Animal Breeding pp. 593-611.

Kataria, H.R., Gisi, U., 1996. Chemical control of Rhizoctonia species, Rhizoctonia species: Taxonomy, molecular biology, ecology, pathology and disease control. Springer, pp. 537-547.

Khalifa, W., Thabet, M., 2015. Biochar amendment enhances tomato resistance to some soil borne diseases. Middle East Journal of Agriculture Research 4, 1088-1100.

Khan, I., Alam, S., Hussain, H., Shah, B., Naeem, A., Ullah, W., Khan, W.A., Adnan, M., Junaid, K., Shah, S.R.A., 2016. Study on the management of potato black scurf disease by using biocontrol agent and phytobiocides. Journal of Entomological and Zoological Studies 4, 471-475.

Kouki, S., Saidi, N., Ben Rajeb, A., Brahmi, M., Bellila, A., Fumio, M., Hefiène, A., Jedidi, N., Downer, J., Ouzari, H., 2012. Control of Fusarium wilt of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici using mixture of vegetable and Posidonia oceanica compost. Applied and Environmental Soil Science 2012, Article ID 239639, 11 pages.

Kraus, T.E.C., Dahlgren, R.A., Zasoski, R.J., 2003. Tannins in nutrient dynamics of forest ecosystems-a review. Plant and Soil 256, 41-66.

Larkin, R.P., Honeycutt, C.W., 2006. Effects of different 3-year cropping systems on soil microbial communities and Rhizoctonia diseases of potato. Phytopathology 96, 68-79.

Larkin, R.P., Honeycutt, C.W., Griffin, T.S., Olanya, O.M., He, Z., Halloran, J.M., 2017. Cumulative and residual effects of different potato cropping system management strategies on soilborne diseases and soil microbial communities over time. Plant Pathology 66, 437-449.

Lehmann, J., Jospeh, S., 2009. Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology, in: Lehmann, J., Joseph, S. (Eds.), 1st ed. Earthscan: London, UK, 2009; ISBN 978-1-84407-658-1.

Lin, C., Tsai, C.-H., Chen, P.-Y., Wu, C.-Y., Chang, Y.-L., Yang, Y.-L., Chen, Y.-L., 2018. Biological control of potato common scab by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Ba01. PLOS ONE 13, e0196520.

Lu, Y., Rao, S., Huang, F., Cai, Y., Wang, G., Cai, K., 2016. Effects of biochar amendment on tomato bacterial wilt resistance and soil microbial amount and activity. International Journal of Agronomy 2016, Article ID 2938282, 10 pages.

Majeed, A., Muhammad, Z., Ullah, Z., Ullah, R., Ahmad, H., 2017. Late blight of potato (Phytophthora infestans) I: Fungicides application and associated challenges. Turkish Journal of Agriculture-Food Science and Technology 5, 261-266.

Mittler, R., 2006. Abiotic stress, the field environment and stress combination. Trends in Plant Science 11, 15-19.

Mohsan, M., Niaz, M.Z., Bashir, M.R., 2016. Reactions of 18 potato cultivars against black scurf disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn. International Journal of Advanced Research and Biolo;gical Sciences 3, 197-199.

Naz, F., Rauf, C.A., Abbasi, N.A., Haque, I., Ahmad, I., 2008. Influence of inoculum levels of Rhizoctonia solani and susceptibility on new potato germplasm. Pakistan Journal of Botany 40, 2199-2209.

Nejad, F.R., Cromey, M.G., Moosawi-Jorf, S.A., 2007. Determination of the anastomosis grouping and virulence of Rhizoctonia spp. associated with potato tubers grown in Lincoln, New Zealand. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 10, 3786-3793.

Ngadze, E., 2018. Calcium soil amendment increases resistance of potato to blackleg and soft rot pathogens. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development 18, 12975-12991.

Noble, R., Coventry, E., 2005. Suppression of soil-borne plant diseases with composts: a review. Biocontrol Science and Technology 15, 3-20.

Olaya, G., Abawi, G.S., Barnard, J., 1994. Response of Rhizoctonia solani and binucleate Rhizoctonia to five fungicides and control of pocket rot of table beets with foliar sprays. Plant Disease 78, 1033-1037.

Pawar, V.C., Thaker, V.S., 2006. In vitro efficacy of 75 essential oils against Aspergillus niger. Mycoses 49, 316-323.

Peters, R.D., Sturz, A.V., Carter, M.R., Sanderson, J.B., 2004. Influence of crop rotation and conservation tillage practices on the severity of soil-borne potato diseases in temperate humid agriculture. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 84, 397-402.

Rauf, C.A., Ahmad, I., Ashraf, M., 2007. Anastomosis groups of Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn isolates from potato in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 39, 1335-1340.

Rauf, C.A., Naz, F., Ahmad, I., Irfan ul Haque., Riaz, A., 2015. Management of black scurf of potato with effective microbes (EM), biological potassium fertilizer (BPF) and Trichoderma harzianum. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 17, 601-606.

Rauscher, G.M., Smart, C.D., Simko, I., Bonierbale, M., Mayton, H., Greenland, A., Fry, W.E., 2006. Characterization and mapping of R Pi-ber, a novel potato late blight resistance gene from Solanum berthaultii. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 112, 674-687.

Rivera, M.C., Wright, E.R., Fabrizio, M.C., Freixá, G., Cabalini, R., Lopez, S.E., 2013. Control of seedling damping of caused by Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii using onion broths Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany 82, 227-234.

Sabet, K.K., Saber, M.M., El-Naggar, M.A., El-Mougy, N.S., El-Deeb, H.M., El-Shahawy, I.E.-S., 2013. Using commercial compost as control measures against cucumber root-rot disease. Journal of Mycology 2013, Article ID 324570, 13 pages.

Said, E.K., El Hassan, A., Abdellatif, H., Jamal, I., Saadia, B., Fouad, R., Ghizlane, E., Rachid, B., 2017. In vitro evaluation of compost extracts efficiency as biocontrol agent of date palm Fusarium wilt. African Journal of Microbiology Research 11, 1155-1161.

Salim, H.A., Hantosh, M.N.K., Rashid, F.T., Ali, N.F., 2017. The effect of alcoholic extract of Silybum Marianum leaves against some of Rhizoctonia solani strains. Journal of Bacteriology & Mycology 5, 1-4.

Simons, S.A., Gilligan, C.A., 1997. Factors affecting the temporal progress of stem canker (Rhizoctonia solani) on potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). Plant Pathology 46, 642-650.

Tian, X., Zheng, Y., 2013. Compost teas and reused nutrient solution suppress plant pathogens in vitro. HortScience 48, 510-512.

Tsror, L., Barak, R., Sneh, B., 2001. Biological control of black scurf on potato under organic management. Crop Protection 20, 145-150.

Wang, Y., Pan, F., Wang, G., Zhang, G., Wang, Y., Chen, X., Mao, Z., 2014. Effects of biochar on photosynthesis and antioxidative system of Malus hupehensis Rehd. seedlings under replant conditions. Scientia Horticulturae 175, 9-15.

Were, S.A., Narla, R.D., Thies, J.E., Mutitu, E.W., Muthomi, J.W., Munyua, L.M., Robrooek, D., VanLauwe, B., 2019. Effect of vermicompost and biochars from different crop residues in management of root rot of common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). International Journal of Research in Agricultural Sciences 6, 94-106.

Wharton, P., Kirk, W., Berry, D., Snapp, S., 2007. Michigan Potato Diseases: Rhizoctonia stem canker and black scurf of potato, Extension Bulletin E-2994-New-May.

Woodhall, J.W., Lees, A.K., Edwards, S.G., Jenkinson, P., 2007. Characterization of Rhizoctonia solani from potato in Great Britain. Plant Pathology 56, 286-295.

Yogev, A., Raviv, M., Hadar, Y., Cohen, R., Katan, J., 2006. Plant waste-based composts suppressive to diseases caused by pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum. European Journal of Plant Pathology 116, 267-278.

Zwart, D.C., Kim, S.-H., 2012. Biochar amendment increases resistance to stem lesions caused by Phytophthora spp. in tree seedlings. HortScience 47, 1736-1740.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33804/pp.005.03.3925


  • There are currently no refbacks.