Incidence and Molecular Characterization of Citrus Bacterial Canker Disease in Pakistan

Fasiha Fayyaz Khan, Rafia Ahsan, Atif Jamal, Laila Jafri, Rehana Rani, Samreen Saleem, Muhammad Adeel Javed, Kashif Sarfraz Abbasi, Samea Khan, Muhammad Zakria


The prevalence of Citrus Bacterial Canker (CBC) in the Indo-Pak subcontinent, particularly in Pakistan, poses a significant economic threat due to its quarantine implications. This research aimed to assess the current status of CBC in major citrus-growing regions of Punjab and KPK, shedding light on the incidence and severity of the disease. In Punjab, varying degrees of CBC incidence (20-81 %) were observed across different districts, with Sargodha, Toba Tek Singh, Faisalabad, Chiniot, and Mianwali showing higher rates. Conversely, Sialkot and Sahiwal were found to be free from the disease. The severity of CBC was most pronounced in Mianwali (26.2 %), highlighting the region's vulnerability. Similarly, in KPK, varying incidence rates (3-7 %) were recorded, with Haripur, Nowshera, Lower Dir, and Swat reporting minimal or no occurrences. A total number of ninety-six were confirmed as Xanthomonas citri pv. citri through PCR and pathogenicity tests. Despite these findings, further research is imperative to unravel the pathogenic diversity of X. citri in Pakistan, paving the way for more targeted and effective management strategies. This research underscores the importance of ongoing monitoring and in-depth investigations to mitigate the economic impact of CBC on the citrus industry in Pakistan. Identifying and understanding the pathogenic variations within X. citri will be crucial for devising sustainable and region-specific control measures.


Citrus bacterial canker; Xanthomonas citri pv. Citri; Incidence; Severity; PCR

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