Estimation of Heterosis of Yield and Yield-Related Traits in the African Eggplant (Solanum Aethiopicum) Hybrids

Esther T. Akinyode, Justina B.O. Porbeni, David K Ojo, Olufemi O. O. Pitan, Adenike O. Olufolaji, Victor Chikaleke, Ayoola M. Abdul-Rafiu, Dorcas O. Ibitoye


African eggplant is an important fruit and leafy vegetable in Africa. Heterosis over mid and better parents was estimated in eight crosses of eggplant involving eight pure lines in a field experiment in 2012 and 2013 cropping seasons. The experiment was laid out using a randomized complete block design with three replications. Collected data was subjected to analysis of variance and significant differences were further subjected to Duncan Multiple Range Test. The aim of this study was to identify superior hybrids that can be advanced in the eggplant breeding program for improved yield and related traits. Significant variation was observed among all traits measured for the parents and hybrids. The highest fruit number was observed in NHS10-40 and in NHS 10-71 x NHS 10-40 among the parents and hybrids respectively. The highest heterosis was recorded in the cross between NHS10-71 x NHS10-40.


African eggplant; better-parent heterosis; mid-parent heterosis; hybrid; yield

Full Text:



Adeyanju, A.O. and Ishiyaku, M.F. 2012. Genetic study of earliness in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] under screen house condition. International Journal of Plant Breeding and Genetics, 1(1): 34-37.

Bationo-Kando, P., Sawadogo, B., Nanema, K. R., Kiébré, Z., Sawadogo, N., Kiébré, M., Traoré, R.E., Sawadogo, M. and Zongo J.D. 2015. Characterization of Solanum aethiopicum (Kumba group) in Burkina Faso. International Journal of Science and Nature 6 (2):169-176.

Danquah, J. A. and Ofori, K., 2012. Variation and correlation among Agronomic traits in ten (10) accessions of garden egg (Solanum gilo R.) in Ghana. International Journal of Science and Nature. 3(2), 373 - 379. Available online at

Eze, S.C., Baiyeri, K.P., Agbo, C.U., Ameh, G.I. and Osahele, E.S., 2012. Sensory Evaluation of eggplant fruits as a selection tool for eggplant breeding Academic Journals. 7(37), 524 - 525.

Horna, D., Timpo, S. and Gruere, G. 2007. Marketing underutilized crops: The case of the African garden egg (Solanum aethiopicum) in Ghana. Global Facilitation Unit for Underutilized Species (GFU) Via dei Tre Denri, Rome, Italy.

Kubie, L. D. 2013. Evaluation of genetic diversity in garden egg (Solanum aethiopicum) germplasm in Ghana. Thesis submitted to the University of Ghana pp. 37-71. Available online at

Kumar, A., Singh, S and Singh, S.P. 2012. Heterosis for Yield and Yield Components in Bamati Rice. Asian Journal of Agricultural Research, 6: 21-29.

Kumar, S. R., Arumugam, T., Anandakumar, C. R. and Rajavel, D. S., 2012. Estimation of Heterosis and Specific Combining Ability for Yield, Quality, Pest and Disease incidence in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). Bulletin of Environmental Pharmacology. Life Science. 2(1), 3 - 15.

Kumar, S. R., Arumugam, T., Anandakumar, C. R., Balakrishnan, S. and Rajavel, D. S., 2013. Heterosis expression, interrelationship, direct and indirect effects of component characters on yield in intervarietal crosses of eggplant. African Journal of Biotechnology. 12(45), 6366 - 6375. Available online at:>article

Lester, R. N. and Seck, A. 2004. Solanum aethiopicum L. In: Grubben, G.J.H. and Denton, O.A. (Ed.). Plant Resources of Tropical Africa / Resources vegetales de l’Afrique Tropicale (PROTA). Wageningen, Netherlands. Available online at

Liang, G.H., Reddy, C.R. and Dayton, A.D., 1972. Heterosis, Inbreeding depression and Heritability estimates in a systematic series of grain sorghum genotypes. Crop Science 12, 400-411. Available online at

Omidiji, M. O., 1983. Cytomorphological studies of Solanum aethiopicum x S. macrocarpon F1 hybrid. Cytologia Asian Science and Technology. 48(1), 35 - 40. Available online at

Onunka, B.N, Chinaka, C.C. and Ezeh, C.I., 2011. Socio- Economic Determinants of African Eggplant (Solanum gilo) Marketer in Abia State, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Social Research. 11(2), 147-154. Available online at

Reshmika, P.K., 2015. Genetic variability, divergence and correlation studies in Brinjal. International Journal of Agricultural Science and Research (IJASR). 5(6), 103 – 110. Available online at

SAS 2009 Statistical Analysis System Proprietary Software Release 9.2. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC.

Seek, A. 1997. Conservation and utilization of germplasm of traditional African Vegetables in Senegal. In: Traditional African vegetables. Guarino L. Proceedings of the IPGRI International Workshop on Genetic Resources of Traditional vegetables in Africa: Conservation and use, 29 - 31 August, Nairobi, Kenya. Available online at

Sekara, A., Cebula, S. and Kunicki, E. 2007. Cultivated eggplants – Origin, breeding, objective and genetic resources, a review. Folia Horticulturae Ann. 19(1), 91 - 114. Available online at

Shahjahan, M., Kabir, K., Zomo, S.A., Sarka, Md. D. and Fazlullah, M.U., 2016. Evaluation of Heterosis in Exotic eggplant. International Journal of Agricultural and food Sciences. 1(2): 23-32. Available online at

Sharma, V. K., Punetha, Shailaja, and Sharma, B.B., 2013. Heterosis studies for earliness, fruit yield and yield attributing traits in bell pepper. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 8(29), 4088 – 4098. Available online at

Singh, P.K., R. Thakur, C.K. Chaudhary and N.B. Singh, 1995. Combining ability and heterosis for yield and panicle traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Crop Res., 19: 6-12.

Surya, K.S., Srihari, D., Ravi, S. C., Chenga, R.V., and Siva, S.A. 2013. Studies on genetic divergence, heterosis and combining ability in Paprika (Capsicum annuum L.). Proceedings of the XV EUCARPIA Meeting on Genetics and Breeding of Capsicum and Eggplant Lanteri S. and Rotino G.L. 79-86. Available online at

Wengui, Y. 2003. Crop Heterosis and Herbicide (US Patent 4764643). Available online at



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Esther T. Akinyode, Justina B.O. Porbeni, David K Ojo, Olufemi O. O. Pitan, Adenike O. Olufolaji, Victor Chikaleke, Ayoola M. Abdul-Rafiu, Dorcas O. Ibitoye

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Journal of Plant Breeding and Genetics
ISSN: 2305-297X (Online), 2308-121X (Print)
© EScience Press. All Rights Reserved.