Thankappan R. Kumar, Sekar Sethuraman, Kanagaraj Anandaraj, Vaithiyanathan Iyyappan


The male accessory reproductive glands of insect, in most cases the gland exhibits a single layered glandular epithelium surrounded by the basement membrane and muscular wall. They may be ectodermal in origin, when they known as ectodenia, and in this case they open into the ejaculatory duct, ectadenia, occur in coleopteran and possibly other groups. Glands of mesodermal origin mesadenia are found in Orthoptera. The primary function of these secretions is to facilitate sperm transfer; they may also act as barrier to further insemination. Electron microscopic studies on the adult male accessory reproductive glands of Odontopus varicornis insects have revealed presence of a single layer of columnar epithelium, characterized by the multi shaped endoplasmic reticulum, polymorphic golgi bodies and vesicles. The male accessory reproductive gland in control insects indicates its apocrine mode of secretion and its relative quantity of secretion appears to be higher than that of the glands of treated insects. A significance changes in the structure of the glands have been observed after the treatment of neem gold (25ppm median lethal concentration).  It indicates the presence of numerous rough endoplasmic reticulum with cisternae which are considerably distended and induce fine granular products. The lumen of this gland reveals the presence of less granular secretary materials identical to the rough endoplasmic inclusions and less electron dense substance which are identical to golgi vesicles. The gland, further exhibits the mitochondria with numerous microvilli, swollen nucleus and secretary vesicles with multi vesicular bodies. The gland of the insects after treatment reveals the occurrence of the degenerative epithelium, shrunken nucleus and large number of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. It shows the absence of multi vesicular bodies indicating its less secretary activity. Based on the observations, it may be inferred that this gland involves itself in apocrine mode of secretion during reproductive cycle and this secretion seems to facilitate the transport of spermatozoa into female through seminal fluid and may contribute rich materials for the maturity and physiological activity of spermatozoa.


Basement membrane, polymorphic, microvilli, cisternae, ectadenia, columnar epithelium, neem gold

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