Determining the Efficacy of Plant Extracts and Chemicals against Bacterial Leaf Spot of Spinach

Shahbaz Hussain, Muhammad Sajid, Yasir Mehmood, Muhammad Sheeraz, Muhammad Irfan, Shabir Hussain, Shahid Ameer, Muhammad Mehtab, Tatheer Abbas


Bacterial leaf spot of spinach is an emerging problem causing significant losses worldwide, particularly in Pakistan. The current study was subjected to mitigate this arising issue by the exploitation of four chemicals and four plant extracts in vitro and in green house at three different concentrations. The experiments were performed under CRD through inhibition zone technique and foliar spray method. Laboratory experiments concluded aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica with maximum inhibition zone (10.4 mm) followed by Calotropis gigantea (5.0 mm), Citrullus colocynthis (3.6 mm), and Moringa oleifera (1.6 mm) respectively as compared to control (0.00 mm). In vitro results of chemicals showed Streptomycin sulphate (13.9 mm) with highest inhibition zone followed by Oxytetracycline (10.2 mm), Kasumin (4.7 mm), and Copper oxychloride (3.2 mm) respectively. Most effective Phytoextracts and chemicals observed in vitro were selected for greenhouse evaluation. In greenhouse results Streptomycin sulphate (5.2%) showed as most significant antibacterial agent in managing the disease severity followed by Acacia nilotica (10.1%) as compared to control. The current findings would be the valuable insights for researchers and the farming community, assisting in the improved management of bacterial leaf spot of spinach.


Bacterial diseases; Spinacia oleracea L.; Pseudomonas syringae; Inhibition zone technique; Disease severity

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