Nuzhat Jamil, Muhammad Yasir, Ambreen Ahmed


Chromium generally hinders plant growth, but bacterial inoculations by following different mechanisms can enhance tolerance against heavy metal stress in plants. Characterization and identification of the bacterial strains which have capability to improve growth of plants growing under chromium stressed environment by reducing uptake of metal was the main objective of this present study. For this purpose, chromium tolerant bacterial strains were isolated from tannery effluents from industrial area Kasur, Pakistan and finally three competent bacterial isolates showing minimum inhibitory concentration as 300µg/ml were selected for further study. After that 16S rRNA genetic analysis was used for molecular characterization of these bacterial isolates. Seeds of Helianthus annus were inoculated with these bacterial isolates and grown under chromium contaminated soil to determine their effect growth attributes of plants. All the growth attributes of plants, biomass production, stress tolerance index and seedling vigor index was measured. The present study represents that bacterial inoculation of seeds has capability to improve growth attributes of plants growing in heavy metal stressed environment and counteract the damaging effects of toxicity of heavy metal chromium. The objective of this study is to use bacteria as emergingy ecofriendly bioremediation approach to grow important crops in heavy metal contaminated areas.


Bacterial isolates; Chromium resistance; Growth attributes; Helianthus annus; Seed germination; Seedling vigor index; Stress tolerance index

Full Text:



Agarwal, M., R. S. Rathore and A. Chauhan. 2020. A rapid and high throughput MIC determination method to screen uranium resistant microorganisms. Methods and protocols, 3(1): 21.

Ahmad, R., S. Ali, M. Abid, M. Rizwan, B. Ali, A. Tanveer, I. Ahmad, M. Azam and M. A. Ghani. 2020. Glycinebetaine alleviates the chromium toxicity in Brassica oleracea L. by suppressing oxidative stress and modulating the plant morphology and photosynthetic attributes. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27(1): 1101-1111.

Alvarez, C. C., M. E. B. Gómez and A. H. Zavala. 2021. Hexavalent chromium: Regulation and health effects. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 65: 126729.

Basit, F., J. A. Bhat, Y. Guan, B. L. Jan, A. Tyagi and P. Ahmad. 2022. Nitric oxide and spermine revealed positive defense interplay for the regulation of the chromium toxicity in soybean (Glycine max L.). Environmental Pollution, 308: 119602.

Chakma, P., M. M. Hossain and M. G. Rabbani. 2019. Effects of salinity stress on seed germination and seedling growth of tomato: Salinity stress on seed germination and seedling growth. Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University, 17(4): 490-499.

Etesami, H. And S. M. Adl. 2020. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and their action mechanisms in availability of nutrients to plants. Phyto-Microbiome in stress regulation, 147-203.

Goyal, D., A. Yadav, M. Prasad, B. S. Teg, S. Preksha, A. A. Dr, K. D. Prem and M. Sushma. 2020. Effect of heavy metals on plant growth: an overview. Contaminants in agriculture, 79-101.

Istudor, N., R. A. Ion, I. E. Petrescu and A. Hrebenciuc. 2019. Agriculture and the twofold relationship between food security and climate change. Evidence from Romania. Amfiteatru Economic, 21(51): 285-293.

Itroutwar, P. D., G. Kasivelu, V. Raguraman, K. Malaichamy and S. K. Sevathapandian. 2020. Effects of biogenic zinc oxide nanoparticles on seed germination and seedling vigor of maize (Zea mays). Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 29: 101778.

Khayatnezhad, M. and R. Gholamin. 2020. A modern equation for determining the dry-spell resistance of crops to identify suitable seeds for the breeding program using modified stress tolerance index (MSTI). Bioscience Biotechnology Research Communications, 13(4): 2114-2117.

Nazli, F., A. Mustafa, M. Ahmad, A. Hussain, M. Jamil, X. Wang, Q. Shakeel, M. Imtiaz and M. A. El-Esawi. 2020. A review on practical application and potentials of phytohormone-producing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria for inducing heavy metal tolerance in crops. Sustainability, 12(21): 9056.

Oleńska, E., W. Małek, M. Wójcik, I. Swiecicka, S. Thijs and J. Vangronsveld. 2020. Beneficial features of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria for improving plant growth and health in challenging conditions: A methodical review. Science of the Total Environment, 743: 140682.

Seneviratne, M., N. Rajakaruna, M. Rizwan, H. Madawala, Y. S. Ok and M. Vithanage. 2019. Heavy metal-induced oxidative stress on seed germination and seedling development: a critical review. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 41(4): 1813-1831.

Sharma, A., D. Kapoor, J. Wang, B. Shahzad, V. Kumar, A. S. Bali, S. Jasrotia, B. Zheng, H. Yuan and D. Yan. 2020. Chromium bioaccumulation and its impacts on plants: an overview. Plants, 9(1): 100.

Singh, D., P. Ghosh, J. Kumar and A. Kumar. 2019a. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs): functions and benefits Microbial interventions in agriculture and environment. Springer, p: 205-227.

Singh, P., N. Itankar and Y. Patil. 2021. Biomanagement of hexavalent chromium: current trends and promising perspectives. Journal of Environmental Management, 279: 111547.

Singh, R., A.B. Jha, A. N. Misra and P. Sharma. 2019b. Adaption mechanisms in plants under heavy metal stress conditions during phytoremediation Phytomanagement of polluted sites. Elsevier, p: 329-360.

Taufikurahman, T., R. R. D. A. Rizkyani and A. Rahmawati. 2022. Phytotoxicity of chromium-containing wastewater on germination and growth of Oryza sativa L. In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, vol 1034. IOP Publishing, p: 012055.

Ukhurebor, K. E., U. O. Aigbe, R. B. Onyancha, W. Nwankwo, O. A. Osibote, H. K. Paumo, O. M. Ama and I. U. Siloko. 2021. Effect of hexavalent chromium on the environment and removal techniques: a review. Journal of Environmental Management, 280: 111809.

Wakeel, A. And M. Xu. 2020. Chromium morpho-phytotoxicity. Plants, 9(5): 564.

Zaheer, I. E., S. Ali, M. H. Saleem, M. A. Ashraf, Q. Ali, Z. Abbas, M. Rizwan, M. A. El-Sheik, M. N. Alyemeni and L. wijaya. 2020a. Zinc-lysine supplementation mitigates oxidative stress in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) by preventing phytotoxicity of chromium, when irrigated with tannery wastewater. Plants, 9(9): 1145.

Zaheer, I. E., S. Ali, M. H. Saleem, M. A. Ashraf, Q. Ali, Z. Abbas, M. Rizwan, M. A. El-Sheik, M. N. Alyemeni and L. wijaya. 2020b. Iron–lysine mediated alleviation of chromium toxicity in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) plants in relation to morpho-physiological traits and iron uptake when irrigated with tannery wastewater. Sustainability, 12(16): 6690.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.