Assessment of Phytoextracts and Synthetic Chemicals for Controlling Leaf Blight of Syzygium Cumini

Rabeet Ahsan Khan, Muhammad Atiq, Nasir Ahmed Rajput, Irfan Ahmad, Abdul Jabbar, Muhammad Jalal Arif, Abuzar Husnain, Ahmad Nawaz, Muhammad Mehtab, Waqas Ahmad


Jamun (Syzygium cumini) is a distinguished source of protein, fat, minerals (Iron, Calcium, and Potassium), fiber, carbohydrates, phosphorous, and vitamin C (ascorbic acid). Leaf blight of S. cumini, caused by Pestalotiopsis spp., poses a potential threat to the successful production of Jamun fruit. The appearance of small, round, dark, and sunken spots on the fruit diminishes its quality and results in yield losses of 10 to 20%. Fungicides and plant extracts were employed to address this fungal problem under laboratory and greenhouse conditions using a Completely Randomized Design whereas field trials were performed using a Randomized Complete Block Design. In vitro experiments revealed that among the fungicides, minimum fungal growth was observed with Score (12.5 mm), followed by Topsin M (16.89 mm), Fossil (18.37 mm), Excel (23.17 mm), Evito (27.56 mm), and Bloom (32.32 mm), as compared to the control (55.56 mm). Among the phytoextracts, Moringa extracts showed the least fungal growth (15.7 mm), followed by Neem (18.76 mm), Eucalyptus (19 mm), Garlic (22.72 mm), Ginger (27.57 mm), and Cinnamomum verum (Dar Cheni) (31 mm), in comparison to the control (53.17 mm). The most effective fungicides and plant extracts determined in the laboratory experiments were further evaluated in greenhouse and field conditions, both alone and in combinations. In the greenhouse evaluation, the combination of Moringa + Score exhibited the lowest disease incidence (23.63%), followed by Score (28.12%) and Moringa (29.56%), in contrast to the control (52.9%). Under field conditions, among all treatments, Moringa + Score exhibited the least disease incidence of 17.44%. These findings confirm that leaf blight of S. cumini can be managed by using Score fungicide and Moringa oleifera extract.


Topsin M; plant extract; ecofriendly; Evito; Bloom and Moringa; plant disease management

Full Text:



Ahmed, M.H., Ashfaq, M., Mukhtar, T., Khan, M.A., 2021. Categorization of available cucumber genotypes against Zucchini yellow mosaic virus and root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). International Journal of Agriculture & Biology 25 (5), 955-961.

Ara, T., Monzur, S., Saand, M.A., Islam, R., Alam, S., Hossain, M., 2017. The first report of Pestalotiopsis sp. causing crown rot disease on strawberry (Fragaria X ananassa Duch.) in Bangladesh and evaluation of fungicide activity. International Journal of Biosciences 11(4),350-358.

Azeem, W., Mukhtar, T., Hamid, T., 2021. Evaluation of Trichoderma harzianum and Azadirachta indica in the management of Meloidogyne incognita in Tomato. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 53(1), 119-125.

Banerjee, A., Rana, D., 2020. Leaf spot disease of Syzygium cumini caused by Neopestalotiopsis clavispora newly reported in India. Plant Disease 104(4),1255.

Barman, H., Roy, A., Das, S.K., 2015. Evaluation of plant products and antagonistic microbes against grey blight (Pestalotiopsis theae), a devastating pathogen of tea. African Journal of Microbiology Research 9(18),1263-1267.

Bhanumathi, A., Rai, V.R., 2007. Leaf blight of Syzygium cumini and its management in vitro. Australasian Plant Disease Notes 2(1),117-121.

Bhuiyan, M.A.B., Sultana, N., Mahmud, N.U., Kader, M.A., Hassan, O., Chang, T., Islam, T., Akanda, A.M., 2021. Characterization of Pestalotiopsis sp. causing gray leaf spot in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in Bangladesh. Journal of Basic Microbiology 61(12),1085-1097.

Bibi, S., Inam-Ul-Haq, M., Riaz, A., Malik, S.I., Tahir, M.I., Ahmed, R., 2017. Screening and characterization of Rhizobacteria antagonistic to Pseudomonas syringae causing bacterial canker of stone fruits in Punjab and KPK. International Journal of Biosciences 10, 405-412.

Chen, Y., Zeng, L., Shu, N., Jiang, M., Wang, H., Huang, Y., Tong, H., 2018. Pestalotiopsis-like species causing gray blight disease on Camellia sinensis in China. Plant disease 102(1), 98-106.

Chhikara, N., Kaur, R., Jaglan, S., Sharma, P., Gat, Y., Panghal, A., 2018. Bioactive compounds and pharmacological and food applications of Syzygium cumini–a review. Food and function 9(12), 6096-6115.

Chuang, P., Lee, C., Chou, J., Murugan, M., Shieh, B., Chen, H., 2007. Antifungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam. Bioresource technology 98, 232-236.

Cowan, M.M., 1999. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clinical microbiology reviews 12(4), 564-582.

Dahot, MU., 1998. Antimicrobial activity of Small Protein of Moringa oleifera leaves. Journal of Islamic academy of sciences 11(1), 27-32.

Dhingra, O.D., Maia, C.B., Lustosa, D.C., Mesquita, J.B., 2002. Seedborne pathogenic fungi that affect seedling quality of red angico (Anadenanthera macrocarpa) trees in Brazil. Journal of Phytopathology 150(8‐9), 451-455.

Govt. of Pakistan, Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock (Economic Wing Islamabad) Nov, 2019.

Haider, E., Khan, M.A., Atiq, M., Shahbaz, M., Yaseen, S., 2020. Phytoextracts as management tool against fungal diseases of vegetables. International Journal of Bioscience 16(3), 303-314.

Haq, M.A., Mukhtar, T., Haq, M.I., Khalid, A., 2022. Reproduction of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, on Solanum melongena genotypes determines their host status. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 54 (5), 2097-2103.

Iqbal, U., Mukhtar, T., 2020a. Inhibitory effects of some fungicides against Macrophomina phaseolina causing charcoal rot. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 52(2), 709-715.

Iqbal, U., Mukhtar, T., 2020b. Evaluation of biocontrol potential of seven indigenous Trichoderma species against charcoal rot causing fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina. Gesunde Pflanzen 72(2), 195-202.

Joshi, M., Paudel, M., Upreti, S., 2019. Therapeutic influence of Jamun (Syzygium cumini): A review. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 8(3),1056-1059.

Joshi, S.D., Sanjay, R., Baby, U.I., Mandal, A.K.A., 2009. Molecular characterization of Pestalotiopsis spp. associated with tea (Camellia sinensis) in southern India using RAPD and ISSR markers. Indian Journal of Biotechnology 8, 377-383.

Koczulla, AR., Bals, R., 2003. Antimicrobial peptides: current status and therapeutic potential. Drugs 63(4), 389-406.

Koller, W., Scheinpflug, H., 1987. Fungal resistance to sterol biosynthesis inhibitors: a new challenge. Plant Disease 71, 1066-1074.

Kshirsagar, R., Desai, G., Sawate, A., Deshmukh, N., 2019. Physicochemical and nutritional properties of jamun (Syzygium cumini) seed. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 8(2), 211-213.

Mandiriza, G., Kritzinger, Q., Aveling, T.A.S., 2018. The evaluation of plant extracts, biocontrol agents and hot water as seed treatments to control black rot of rape in South Africa. Crop Protection 114, 129-136.

Mordue, J., 1984. CMI descriptions of pathogenic fungi and bacteria. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria 81, 801-810.

Moshayedi, M., Rahanandeh, H., Hamzeh, A., 2017. In vitro evaluation of some fungicides and tea extract against Pestalotia sp. and Colletotrichum sp., the causal agents of leaf spot and anthracnose of azalea. Journal of Ornamental Plants 7(1), 45-51.

Mukhtar, T., Tariq-Khan, M., Aslam, M.N., 2021. Bioefficacy of Trichoderma species against Javanese root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica in green gram. Gesunde Pflanzen 73(3), 265-272.

Mukhtar, T., Vagelas, I., Javaid, A., 2023. Editorial: New trends in integrated plant disease management. Frontiers in Agronomy 4, 1104122. doi: 10.3389/fagro.2022.11041221

Panahandeh, S., Mohammadi, H., Gramaje, D., 2019. Trunk disease fungi associated with Syzygium cumini in Iran. Plant disease 103(4), 711-720.

Patel, S., Shanmugarajan, T.S., Somasundram, I., Niladr, M., 2010. Protective effect of syzygium cumini seeds against Doxorubcin induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Life Science 1(6), 343-349.

Saeed, M., Mukhtar, T., Haq, M.I., Khan, M.A., 2021. Assessment of nematicidal potential of Cannabis sativa and Azadirachta indica in the management of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) on peach. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 58(5), 1555-1561.

Shahbaz, M., Akram, A., Raja, N.I., Mukhtar, T., Mehak, A., Fatima, N., Ajmal, M., Ali, K., Mustafa, N., Abasi, F., 2023. Antifungal activity of green synthesized selenium nanoparticles and their effect on physiological, biochemical, and antioxidant defense system of mango under mango malformation disease. PLoS ONE 18(2): e0274679.

Shakoor, S., Inam-ul-Haq, M., Bibi, S., Ahmed, R., 2015. Influence of root inoculations with vasicular arbuscular mycorrhizae and rhizomyx for the management of root rot of chickpea. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology 27, 153-158.

Tripathy, A., Khare, N., Kesharwani, A., 2018. Management of leaf blight disease of mung bean through botanicals and chemicals. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 7(5), 1271-1275.

Vaseeharan, B., Thaya, R., 2014. Medicinal plant derivatives as immunostimulants: an alternative to chemotherapeutics and antibiotics in aquaculture. Aquaculture 22, 1079-1091.

Verma, R., Lata, R., Ram, R., Prakash, S., Kumar, V., Verma, S., Pal, H., Singh, R., 2019. Evaluation of physico-chemical attributes of different genotypes of jamun (Syzygium cumini L. Skeels.) fruits. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 8(5), 480-482.

Vujanovic, V., St‐Arnaud, M., Neumann, P.J., 2000. Susceptibility of cones and seeds to fungal infection in a pine (Pinus spp.) collection. Forest Pathology 30(6), 305-320.

Yousaf, M., BukhariInternational, S.A., Atiq, M., Zaman, Z., Ibrahim, M., Sandhua, S.E., Talib, F., Younas, M., Shafiq, M., Nasir, F., Mubeen, I., 2015. Management of late blight of tomato through application of different plant extracts. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology 27(2), 169-174. Zasloff, M., 2002. Antimicrobial peptides of multicellular organisms. Nature 415(6870), 389-395.



  • There are currently no refbacks.