Studies on the Efficacy of Heterogeneously Produced Pasteuria Penetrans (PP3) Isolate over Individual Pasteuria Isolates in the Spore Attachment, and Pathogenic Potential on Three Meloidogyne Species

Muhammad Shahid, Simon R. Gowen, Muhammad Burhan, Zeeshan Niaz, Anwar ul Haq


The aim of the present test was to develop a Pasteuria penetrans isolate (Pp3) on a Meloidogyne blend and compare the attachment and pathogenic potential of this heterogeneously produced isolate with other Pp3 isolates produced on individual Meloidogyne species (Meloidogyne javanica, M. incognita and M. arenaria). Number of spores attached varied among Meloidogyne spp. Pp3 isolate originally multiplied on M. javanica showed greater attachment level with second stage juveniles (J2s) of M. javanica (13.8) than other Meloidogyne spp. tested and lesser attachment was observed on J2s of a M. arenaria. The Pp3 isolate showed variable influence on the Meloidogyne spp. in suppressing root-knot disease. There was a significant difference in numbers of eggmasses produced by females of Meloidogyne spp. Higher numbers of eggmasses were recorded with females of M. arenaria (370) while fewer numbers of eggmasses were observed in treatment where M. javanica (245) was present. Root galling differed significantly among treatments (P<0.01) and higher gall infestation was recorded in M. arenaria treatment (6.2) while lesser galling was observed in M. javanica treatment (4.4). Final female population also varied among treatments (P<0.05) showing higher numbers of females in M. arenaria treatment (456) and fewer with M. javanica (398). Parasitism of females of Meloidogyne spp. by Pp3 differed significantly among treatments. Higher numbers of females infected with Pp3 spores were recorded among females of M. javanica (14.4) while lesser numbers of parasitized females were observed in M. arenaria treatment (9.8). There were significant variations in numbers of endospores/female produced by females of Meloidogyne spp. however egg set data did not differ in the treatments. The results showed that the Pp3 isolate was more pathogenic on M. javanica compared with other Meloidogyne spp. (M. incognita, M. arenaria and M blend). The Pp3 isolate was found compatible with different Meloidogyne spp. while M. arenaria proved the least good host to bacterial parasite


Biocontrol; Pasteuria penetrans; Reproductive factor; Root galling; Root-knot nematode

Full Text:



Ahmad, R., Mukhtar, T., 2007a. Root invasion of different plant hosts by juveniles of Meloidogyne species encumbered with Pasteuria penetrans spores. Pakistan Journal of Nematology 25, 199-206.

Ahmad, R., Mukhtar, T., 2007b. Investigations on the management of Meloidogyne javanica by Pasteuria penetrans isolates over three crop cycles of eggplant. Pakistan Journal of Nematology 25, 157-167.

Asghar, A., Mukhtar, T., Raja, M.U., Gulzar, A., 2020. Interaction between Meloidogyne javanica and Ralstonia solanacearum in chili. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 52(4), 1525-1530.

Aslam, M.N., Mukhtar, T., 2023. Distributional spectrum of bacterial wilt of chili incited by Ralstonia solanacearum in Pakistan. Bragantia 82, e20220196.

Azeem, W., Mukhtar, T., Hamid, T., 2021. Evaluation of Trichoderma harzianum and Azadirachta indica in the management of Meloidogyne incognita in Tomato. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 53(1). 119-125.

Channer, A.G.De R., Gowen, S.R., 1988. Preliminary studies on the potential of Pasteuria penetrans to control Meloidogyne species. Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases 3, 1209-1214.

Channer, A.G.De R., Gowen, S.R., 1992. Selection for increased hostresistance and increased pathogen specificity in the Meloidogyne-Pasteuria penetrans interaction. Fundamental and Applied Nematology 15, 331-339.

Davies, K.G., Kerry, B.R., Flynn, C.A., 1988. Observations on the pathogenicity of Pasteuria penetrans, a parasite of root - knot nematodes. Annals of Applied Biology 112, 491-501.

de Silva, M.P., 1992. Studies on some of the important features in the biological relationship between the bacterial parasite Pasteuria penetrans on its host Meloidogyne spp. PhD. Thesis, Department of Agriculture, University of Reading, UK.

de Silva, M.P., Gowen, S.R., 1995. Attempts to select resistance to Pasteuria penetrans in a single egg mass lines of Meloidogyne javanica. Afro-Asian Journal of Nematology 5, 127-132.

Espanol, M., Verdejo-Lucas, S., Davies, K.G., Kerry, B.R., 1997. Compatibility between Pasteuria penetrans isolates and Meloidogyne populations from Spain. Biocontrol Science and Technology 7, 219-230.

Giannakou, I.O., 1994. The development of hyperparasite P. penetrans on its host Meloidogyne incognita as affected by age of nematodes, spore attachment levels and sampling dates. MSc. Thesis, Department of Agriculture, University of Reading, UK.

Giannakou, I.O., 1998. Aspects on the use of Pasteuria penetrans as a biocontrol agent infecting root - knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). PhD. Thesis, Department of Agriculture, University of Reading, UK.

Giannakou, I.O., Pembroke, B., Gowen, S.R., Davies, K.G., 1997. Effects of long term storage and above normal temperatures on spore adhesion of Pasteuria penetrans and infection of the root - knot nematodes Meloidogyne javanica. Nematologica 43, 185-192.

Haq, M.A., Mukhtar, T., Haq, M.I., Khalid, A., 2022. Reproduction of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, on Solanum melongena genotypes determines their host status. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 54 (5), 2097-2103.

Hussain, M., Kamran, M., Singh, K., Zouhar, M., Ryšánek, P. and Anwar, S.A., 2016a. Response of selected okra cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita. Crop Protection 82, 1-6.

Hussain, M.A., Mukhtar, T., 2019. Root-knot nematodes infecting okra in major vegetable growing districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 51(3), 1137-1143.

Hussain, M.A., Mukhtar, T., and Kayani, M.Z., 2011. Assessment of the damage caused by Meloidogyne incognita on okra. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 21(4), 857-861.

Hussain, M.A., Mukhtar, T., Kayani, M.Z., 2014. Characterization of susceptibility and resistance responses to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) infection in okra germplasm. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 51(2), 319-324.

Hussain, M.A., Mukhtar, T., Kayani, M.Z., 2016b. Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on resistant and susceptible okra cultivars. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 53(2), 371-375.

Hussain, M.A., Mukhtar, T., Kayani, M.Z., Aslam, M.N., Haque, M.I., 2012. A survey of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) in the Punjab province of Pakistan for the determination of prevalence, incidence and severity of root-knot disease caused by Meloidogyne spp. Pakistan Journal of Botany 44(6), 2071-2075.

Kayani, M.Z., Mukhtar, T., Hussain M.A., 2012. Evaluation of nematicidal effects of Cannabis sativa L. and Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb. against root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne incognita. Crop Protection 39, 52-56.

Kayani, M.Z., Mukhtar, T., Hussain, M.A., 2017. Effects of southern root-knot nematode population densities and plant age on growth and yield parameters of cucumber. Crop Protection 92(1), 207-212.

Kayani, M.Z., Mukhtar, T., Hussain, M.A., Haque, M.I., 2013. Infestation assessment of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) associated with cucumber in the Pothowar region of Pakistan. Crop Protection 47, 49-54.

Khan, M.T.A., Mukhtar, T., Saeed, M., 2019. Resistance or susceptibility of eight aubergine cultivars to Meloidogyne javanica. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 51, 2187-2192.

Mukhtar, T., 2018. Management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, in tomato with two Trichoderma species. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 50, 1589-1592.

Mukhtar, T., Ahmad, R., 2000. Combined efficacy of Pasteuria penetrans and leaf extracts on the biocontrol of Meloidogyne javanica on tomato. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology 12, 56-61.

Mukhtar, T., Ahmad, R., Khan, S.M., 2000. Attachment of Pasteuria penetrans spores to the cuticle of Meloidogyne javanica as affected by leaf extracts of some plants. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology 12, 53-55.

Mukhtar, T., Ahmad, R., Mukhtar, N., 2002. Efficacy of Pasteuria penetrans and Verticillium chlamydosporium in the biological control of Meloidogyne javanica. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology 14, 79-83.

Mukhtar, T., Hussain, M.A., 2019. Pathogenic potential of Javanese root-knot nematode on susceptible and resistant okra cultivars. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 51(5), 1891-1897.

Mukhtar, T., Hussain, M.A., Kayani, M.Z., 2013a. Biocontrol potential of Pasteuria penetrans, Pochonia chlamydosporia, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma harzianum against Meloidogyne incognita in okra. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 52 (1), 66-76.

Mukhtar, T., Hussain, M.A., Kayani, M.Z., 2017. Yield responses of twelve okra cultivars to southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). Bragantia 76(1), 108-112.

Mukhtar, T., Hussain, M.A., Kayani, M.Z., Aslam M.N., 2014. Evaluation of resistance to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in okra cultivars. Crop Protection 56, 25-30.

Mukhtar, T., Kayani, M.Z., Hussain, M.A., 2013b. Nematicidal activities of Cannabis sativa L. and Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb. against Meloidogyne incognita. Industrial Crops and Products 42, 447-453.

Mukhtar, T., Kayani, M.Z., Hussain, M.A., 2013c. Response of selected cucumber cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita. Crop Protection 44, 13-17.

Mukhtar, T., Pervaz, I., Ahmad, R., Khan, H.U., 2005. Management of Meloidogyne javanica by cropping sequence and effects on Pasteuria penetrans. Pakistan Journal of Nematology 23, 173-80.

Mukhtar, T., Tariq-Khan, M., Aslam, M.N., 2021. Bioefficacy of Trichoderma Species against Javanese Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne javanica in Green Gram. Gesunde Pflanzen 73(3), 265–272.

Mukhtar, T., Vagelas, I., Javaid, A., 2023. Editorial: New trends in integrated plant disease management. Frontiers in Agronomy 4, 1104122. doi: 10.3389/fagro.2022.1104122

Nazir, K., Mukhtar, T., Javed, H., 2019. In vitro effectiveness of silver nanoparticles against root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). Pakistan Journal of Zoology 51(6), 2077-2083, 2019.

Oostendorp, M., Dickson, D.W., Mitchell, D.J., 1990. Host range and ecology of isolates of Pasteuria spp. from the south-eastern United-States. Journal of Nematology 22, 525-531.

Oostendorp, M., Dickson, D.W., Mitchell, D.J., 1991. Population development of Pasteuria penetrans on Meloidogyne arenaria. Journal of Nematology 23, 58-64.

Rao, M.S., Gowen, S.R., Pembroke, B., Reddy, P.P., 1997. Relationship of Pasteuria penetrans spores encumbrance on juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita and their infection in adults. Nematologia Mediterranea 2, 129-131.

Saeed, M., Mukhtar, T., Haq, M.I., Khan M.A., 2021. Assessment of nematicidal potential of Cannabis sativa and Azadirachta indica in the management of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) on peach. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 58(5), 1555-1561.

Shahbaz, M., Akram, A., Raja, N.I., Mukhtar, T., Mehak, A., Fatima, N., Ajmal, M., Ali, K., Mustafa, N., Abasi, F., 2023. Antifungal activity of green synthesized selenium nanoparticles and their effect on physiological, biochemical, and antioxidant defense system of mango under mango malformation disease. PLoS ONE 18(2): e0274679. pone.0274679

Shahid, M., Rehman, A.U., Khan, A.U., Mahmood, A., 2007. Geographical distribution and infestation of plant parasitic nematodes on vegetables and fruits in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nematology 25(1), 59-67.

Stirling, G.R. Wachtel, M.F., 1980. Mass production of Bacillus penetrans for thebiological control of root - knot nematodes. Nematologica 26, 308-312.

Stirling, G.R., 1985. Host specificity of Pasteuria penetrans within the genus Meloidogyne. Nematologica 31(2), 203-209.

Stirling, G.R., 1991. Biological Control of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes: Problems and Prospects. Wallingford: CABI.

Tariq-Khan, M., Khan, A.-D.A., Saeed, M., Gardazi, S.Z., Mehmood, B., Ilyas, M., Ahmed, R., 2020. Distribution and virulence of root-knot nematodes on summer vegetables in Sudhnuti district of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology 32, 257-264.

Tariq-Khan, M., Mukhtar, T., Munir, A., Hallmann, J., Heuer, H., 2020. Comprehensive report on the prevalence of root-knot nematodes in the Poonch division of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Journal of Phytopathology 168, 322–336.

Tariq-Khan, M., Munir, A., Mukhtar, T., Hallmann, J., Heuer, H., 2017. Distribution of root-knot nematode species and their virulence on vegetables in northern temperate agro-ecosystems of the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 124(3), 201-212.



  • There are currently no refbacks.