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Pathogenicity of Photorhabdus luminescens and Xenorhabdus nematophila against Rhyzopertha dominica (Bostrichidae: Coleoptera) in stored wheat grains

Farid Asif Shaeen, Muhammad Irfan Bhutta, Muhammad Usman Raja, Mehwish Raza, Mohisn Raza, Muhammad Amjad, Muhammad Farooq Nasir


Wheat grains are attacked by more than 23 insect species in Pakistan during storage. Lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica Fabricius (Bostrichidae: Coleoptera) is the most common grain feeding species of all the cereal grains in many parts of the world. Both adults and grubs can damage the stored grains. In this study, entomopathogenic bacteria, Xenorhabdus nematophila and Photorhabdus luminescens were evaluated for the management this serious pest. All the concentrations of P. luminescens and X. nematophila significantly reduced number of eggs laid by R. dominica, number of holes and number of adults as compared to the control. The highest concentrations gave the maximum reductions while the minimum reduction was observed with the lowest concentrations. Similarly, all the concentrations of the bacteria gave statistically significant results regarding the inhibition of R. dominica F1 emergence of adults. The bacterial concentration of 4 × 108 cells/ml showed the highest percent inhibition rate while the least percent inhibition rate was observed with 4 × 104 cells/ml. There was a direct relation between concentration and percent inhibition rate. Regarding percentage weight loss, all the concentrations were statistically different from the control. The concentration of 4 × 108 cells/ml was the most effective with the least percent weight loss. On the other hand, the maximum damage was done by the insect in the grains treated with the concentration 4 × 104 cells/ml. Similarly, the concentrations of 4 × 105,4 × 106 and 4 × 107 cells/ml resulted in greater weight loss to stored wheat grains. Likewise, all the concentrations of P. luminescens and X. nematophila caused significant mortality of R. dominica. The mortality of the insect increased with an increase in the concentration and the time interval. The highest mortality was obtained with the bacterial concentration of 4 × 108 cells/ml and the lowest mortality was recorded with concentration of 4 × 104 cells/ml. The present research will have significant contribution towards development of microbial formulations of X. nematophila and P. luminescens to manage R. dominica in stored wheat.


Rhyzopertha dominica; Entomopathogenic Bacteria; Insect Bioassay

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