Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Management of Aedes aegypti using green silver nanoparticles and botanical extracts

Hassan Saeed, Muhammad Muhammad Tariq, Asim Gulzar, Zia-ur-Rehman Mashwani, Muhammad Safian Bajwa


The excessive use of insecticides has led to development of resistance in Aedes aegypti and negative impact on environment and non-target organisms. To overcome these problems, emphasis is being laid for alternatives, therefore, in the present study, the toxicity of eight plant extracts and their green synthesized nanoparticles were evaluated against A. aegypti. Clove extracts caused the maximum mortalities of 92% and 90% of 3rd and 4th instar larvae of A. aegypti followed by ginger causing 90% and 78% mortalities respectively. On the other hand, the minimum mortalities of these larvae were caused by neem and garlic extracts. In case of green silver nanoparticles, the maximum mortalities of 3rd and 4th instar larvae of A. aegypti were caused by clove followed by ginger while the minimum mortalities were caused by nanoparticles of datura followed by garlic. All the green silver nanoparticles caused mortalities of both the instars of the mosquito above 80% with few exceptions. Datura extracts showed the minimum LC50 values after 72 hours of application followed by neem against the 3rd and 4th instar larvae of A. aegypti.  The highest LC50 value was observed in case of ginger followed by clove and eucalyptus. In case of silver nanoparticles, the minimum LC50 values after 72 hours were recorded in case of datura, neem and garlic while the values were the maximum in case of clove and ginger. The LC50 values decreased with the passage of time.


Yellow fever mosquito; Botanical extracts; Green synthesized silver nanoparticles; LC50; Toxicity

Full Text:



Abbas, A., Abbas, R.Z., Khan, J.A., Iqbal, Z., Bhatti, H., Mehmood, M., Zia, M.A., 2014. Integrated strategies for the control and prevention of dengue vectors with particular reference to Aedes aegypti. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 34, 1-10.

Abbott, W.S., 1925. A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. Journal of Economic Entomology 18, 165-167.

Ali, M., Khan, H.A.A., Tahir, H.M., Tariq, A., Ashfaq, M., Ali, S.W., Gulzar, A., Aslam, H.U.A., Khalid, U., Yousaf, S., Mubashar, U., 2017. Larvicidal potenial of diffrent plants extracts against the larvae of mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) (Culicidae: Diptera). Pakistan Entomologist 39, 37-40.

Barnawi, A.A.B., Sharawi, S.E., Mahyoub, J.A., Al-Ghamdi, K.M., 2019. Larvicidal studies of Avicennia marina extracts against the dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (Culicidae: Diptera). International Journal of Mosquito Research 6, 55-60.

Fouad, H., Hongjie, L., Hosni, D., Wei, J., Abbas, G., Ga’al, H., Jianchu, M., 2018. Controlling Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens pallens using silver nanoparticles synthesized from aqueous extract of Cassia fistula fruit pulp and its mode of action. Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology 46, 558-567.

Ga'al, H., Fouad, H., Tian, J., Hu, Y., Abbas, G., Mo, J., 2018. Synthesis, characterization and efficacy of silver nanoparticles against Aedes albopictus larvae and pupae. Pesticides Biochemistry and Physiology 144, 49-56.

Ghosh, A., Chowdhury, N., Chandra, G., 2012. Plant extracts as potential mosquito larvicides. Indian Journal of Medical Research 135, 581-598.

Gutiérrez-Bugallo, G., Piedra, L.A., Rodriguez, M., Bisset, J.A., Lourenço-de-Oliveira, R., Weaver, S.C., Vasilakis, N., Vega-Rúa, A., 2019. Vector-borne transmission and evolution of Zika virus. Nature Ecology and Evolution 1, 561-569.

Hazra, D.K., Samanta, A., Karmakar, R., Sen, K., Bakshi, P., 2017. Mosquito vector management knowledge, attitude, practices and future of user & environment friendly new generation botanical mosquitocide formulations. A review. International Journal of Chemical Studies 5, 32-37.

Iravani, S., 2011. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using plants. Green Chemistry 13, 2638-2650.

Kandel, Y., Vulcan, J., Rodriguez, S.D., Moore, E., Chung, H.N., Mitra, S., Ettestad, P., Hansen, I.A., 2019. Widespread insecticide resistance in Aedes aegypti L. from New Mexico, USA. PloS One 14, 1-16.

Leparc-Goffart, I., Nougairede, A., Cassadou, S., Prat, C., De Lamballerie, X., 2014. Chikungunya in the Americas. The Lancet 383, 514.

Li, R., Xu, L., Bjørnstad, O.N., Liu, K., Song, T., Chen, A., Stenseth, N.C., 2019. Climate-driven variation in mosquito density predicts the spatiotemporal dynamics of dengue, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, pp. 3624-3629.

Manjarres-Suarez, A., Olivero-Verbel, J., 2013. Chemical control of Aedes aegypti: a historical perspective. Revista Costarricense de Salud Pública 22, 68-75.

Medeiros, E.D.S., Rodrigues, I.B., Litaiff-Abreu, E., da S Pinto, A.C., Tadei, W.P., 2013. Larvicidal activity of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) extracts and eugenol against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles darlingi. African Journal of Biotechnology 12, 836-840.

Minjas, J.N., Sarda, R.K., 1986. Laboratory observations on the toxicity of Swartzia madagascariensis (Leguminosae) extract to mosquito larvae. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 80, 60-461.

Misni, N., Sulaiman, S., Othman, H., Omar, B., 2009. Repellency of essential oil of Piper aduncum against Aedes albopictus in the laboratory. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 25, 442-448.

Morrison, A.C., Schwarz, J., Long, K.C., Cordova, J., Rios, J.E., Quiroz, W.L., Vizcarra, S.A., Hontz, R.D., Scott, T.D., Lambrechts, L., Paz Soldan, V.A., Soldan, V.A.P., 2019. Acceptability of Aedes aegypti blood feeding on dengue virus-infected human volunteers for vector competence studies in Iquitos, Peru. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 13, 1-20.

Nair, S.S., Shetty, V., Shetty, N.J., 2014. Relative toxicity of leaf extracts of Eucalyptus globulus and Centella asiatica against mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. Journal of Insects Article ID 985463, 7 pages

Nasir, S., Nasir, I., Asrar, M., Debboun, M., 2017. Larvicidal and pupicidal action of medicinal plant extracts against dengue mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae). Indian Journal of Animal Research 51, 155-158.

Pandiyan, G.N., Mathew, N., Munusamy, S., 2019. Larvicidal activity of selected essential oil in synergized combinations against Aedes aegypti. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 174, 549-556.

Parashar, U.K., Saxena, P.S., Srivastava, A., 2009. Bioinspired synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures 4, 159-166.

Paul, A., Harrington, L.C., Scott, J.G., 2006. Evaluation of novel insecticides for control of dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 43, 55-60.

Pavunraj, M., Baskar, K., Duraipandiyan, V., Al-Dhabi, N.A., Rajendran, V., Benelli, G., 2017. Toxicity of Ag nanoparticles synthesized using stearic acid from Catharanthus roseus leaf extract against Earias vittella and mosquito vectors (Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti). Journal of Cluster Science 28, 2477-2492.

Remia, K., Logaswamy, S., Shanmugapriyan, R., 2017. Efficacy of botanical repellents against Aedes aegypti. International Journal of Mosquito Research 4, 126-129.

Sangat-Roemantyo, H., 1990. Ethnobotany of the Javanese incense. Economic Botany 44, 413-416.

Selvam, J., Durai, M., 2018. Phytochemical analysis and larvicidal activity of aqueous and ethanol extract of selective medicinal plants against malaria and dengue vector. International journal of Science Research 9, 27113-27119.

Selvaraj, M., Mosses, M., 2011. Efficacy of Melia azedarach on the larvae of three mosquito species Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). European Mosquito Bulletin 29, 116-121.

Singh, R., Dhiman, R., Mittal, P., 2006. Mosquito larvicidal properties of Momordica charantia Linn (Family: Cucurbitaceae). Journal of Vector Borne Diseases 43, 88.

Suresh, G., Gunasekar, P.H., Kokila, D., Prabhu, D., Dinesh, D., Ravichandran, N., Balasubramanian, R., Arunagirinathan, K., Siva, G.V., 2014. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Delphinium denudatum root extract exhibits antibacterial and mosquito larvicidal activities. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 127, 61-66.

Vasantha-Srinivasan, P., Karthi, S., Chellappandian, M., Ponsankar, A., Thanigaivel, A., Senthil-Nathan, S., Ganesan, R., 2019. Aspergillus flavus (Link) toxins reduces the fitness of dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and their non-target toxicity against aquatic predator. Microbial Pathogenesis 128, 281-287.

WHO, 2018. Dengue and severe dengue.



  • There are currently no refbacks.