Changes in serum biochemistry of fish, Catla catla in response to metal toxicity

Wardah Hassan, Sajid Abdullah, Naila Hadayat, Huma Naz, Shakeela Parveen


In the present study an attempt has been made to evaluate the effect of heavy metals i.e. nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) on the serum biochemical parameters of Catla catla. The fish were exposed to lethal concentrations (96-hr LC50) of selected metals. The studied serum biochemical parameters were sodium (Na), potassium (K), chloride (Cl), albumin (Alb), urea (U), glucose (Glu), aspartate aminotransferase (Ast) and alanine aminotransferase (Alt). Results revealed a decrease in Na, Cl and Alb levels of metal exposed fish at all exposure periods as compared to control. However, an increase in K, U, Glu, Ast and Alt levels was observed in the metal exposed fish. All the biochemical parameters showed significant dependence on exposure durations in both treated fish except Na and Alb in Zn treated fish. This study indicated that the alterations in serum biochemical parameters may be the result of the target tissue damage and dysfunction induced by the metal and that these parameters can thus be used to assess the toxic effects of metals on organisms. 


Pollutants; Fish; Biochemical Parameters

Full Text:



Abdel-Tawwab, M., G. O. El-Sayed and S. Shady. 2011. Acute toxicity of water-born zinc in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) fingerlings. Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture, Shanghai Ocean Univ. China. p. 44-50.

Al-Attar, A. 2006. The physiological responses of the fish, Cyprinion mhalensis to mercury intoxication. J Egypt Ger Soc Zool A, 51: 123-137.

Al-Attar, A. M. 2007. The Influences of Nickel Exposure on Selected Physiological Parameters and Gill Structure in the Teleost Fish, Oreochromis niloticus. Journal of Biological Sciences, 7: 77-85.

Al-Zahaby, A. S., K. Z. Hemmaid, A. M. Carnal and G. Ghoncmy. 1998. The pollutant effects of copper, zinc and lead on the histological patterns of fish kidney. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Biology and Fisheries, 2: 15-41.

Association, A. P. H. 2013. APHA. 2005. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 21st ed. American Public Health Association, Washington DC, 1220p.

Bernet, D., H. Schmidt, T. Wahli and P. Burkhardt-Holm. 2001. Effluent from a Sewage Treatment Works Causes Changes in Serum Chemistry of Brown Trout (Salmo trutta L.). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 48: 140-147.

Ceron, J. J., E. Sancho, M. D. Ferrando, C. Gutierrez and E. Andreu. 1997. Changes in carbohydrate metabolism in the eelanguilla anguilla, during short‐term exposure to diazinon. Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, 60: 201-210.

Chowdhury, M. J., E. F. Pane and C. M. Wood. 2004. Physiological effects of dietary cadmium acclimation and waterborne cadmium challenge in rainbow trout: respiratory, ionoregulatory, and stress parameters. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, 139: 163-173.

CiCiK, B. and K. ENGiN. 2005. The effects of cadmium on levels of glucose in serum and glycogen reserves in the liver and muscle tissues of Cyprinus carpio (L., 1758). Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 29: 113-117.

Doreswamy, K., B. Shrilatha, T. Rajeshkumar and Muralidhara. 2004. Nickel-Induced Oxidative Stress in Testis of Mice: Evidence of DNA Damage and Genotoxic Effects. Journal of Andrology, 25: 996-1003.

Elghobashy, H., K. Zaghloul and M. Metwally. 2001. Effect of some water pollutants on the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus collected from the river Nile and some Egyptian lakes. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Biology and Fisheries, 5: 251-279.

Firat, Ö. and F. Kargın. 2010. Biochemical alterations induced by Zn and Cd individually or in combination in the serum of Oreochromis niloticus. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 36: 647-653.

Gopal, V., S. Parvathy and P. R. Balasubramanian. 1997. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 48: 117-124.

Grosell, M., J. Blanchard, K. V. Brix and R. Gerdes. 2007. Physiology is pivotal for interactions between salinity and acute copper toxicity to fish and invertebrates. Aquatic Toxicology, 84: 162-172.

Gupta, V. K., A. Rastogi, V. K. Saini and N. Jain. 2006. Biosorption of copper(II) from aqueous solutions by Spirogyra species. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 296: 59-63.

Hoang, T. C., J. R. Tomasso and S. J. Klaine. 2004. Influence of water quality and age on nickel toxicity to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 23: 86.

Hoseini, S. M. and S. A. Hosseini. 2010. Effect of dietary l-tryptophan on osmotic stress tolerance in common carp, Cyprinus carpio, juveniles. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 36: 1061-1067.

Jacobson-Kram, D. and K. Keller. 2001. Toxicology Testing Handbook: Principles. Applications and Data interpretation. 2nd Edn., Marcel Decker, New York.

Javed, M., I. Ahmad, N. Usmani and M. Ahmad. 2016. Bioaccumulation, oxidative stress and genotoxicity in fish (Channa punctatus) exposed to a thermal power plant effluent. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 127: 163-169.

Jee, J.-H., F. Masroor and J.-C. Kang. 2005. Responses of cypermethrin-induced stress in haematological parameters of Korean rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli (Hilgendorf). Aquaculture Research, 36: 898-905.

Kandeel, N. 2004. Toxicological and Metabolic Studies of Some Molluscicides on Harmful Terrestrial Snails (M. Sc. thesis). Zoology Dep., Faculty of Science, Cairo University.

Kim, S.-G. and J.-C. Kang. 2004. Effect of dietary copper exposure on accumulation, growth and hematological parameters of the juvenile rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli. Marine Environmental Research, 58: 65-82.

Kori-Siakpere, O., R. Ikomi and M. Ogbe. 2010. Variations in acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activities in the plasma of the African catfish: Clarias gariepinus exposed to sublethal concentrations of potassium permanganate. Asian Journal of Experimental Biological Sciences, 1: 170-174.

Kori, S., Ovie, Ubogu and O. Ewoma. 2008. Sublethal haematological effects of zinc on the freshwater fish, Heteroclarias sp. (Osteichthyes: Clariidae). African Journal of Biotechnology, 7: 2068-2073.

Kousar, S. 2014. Assessment of growth and genotoxicity in peripheral blood erythrocytes of fish exposed to metals toxicity. (Unpublished) thesis, UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, FAISALABAD PAKISTAN.

Magyarosy, A., R. Laidlaw, R. Kilaas, C. Echer, D. Clark and J. Keasling. 2002. Nickel accumulation and nickel oxalate precipitation by Aspergillus niger. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 59: 382-388.

Mahananda, H. B. 2014. Alterations in some haemato-bio-chemical parameters of a fresh water, air breathing fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch) under the stress of chronic, sub-lethal dose of nickel. Biolife, 2: 1392-1397.

McDonald, D. G., J. P. Reader and T. R. K. Dalziel. 1989. The combined effects of pH and trace metals on fish ionoregulation. Acid Toxicity and Aquatic Animals. Cambridge University Press, p. 221-242.

Monteiro, S. M., J. M. Mancera, A. Fontaínhas-Fernandes and M. Sousa. 2005. Copper induced alterations of biochemical parameters in the gill and plasma of Oreochromis niloticus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, 141: 375-383.

N., G. M. and M. P. C. 2010. Diversity of fish fauna from downstream zone of river Mahisagar, Gujarat State, India. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 3: 23-26.

Niyogi, S. and C. M. Wood. 2006. Interaction between dietary calcium supplementation and chronic waterborne zinc exposure in juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, 143: 94-102.

Oner, M., G. Atli and M. Canli. 2008. changes in serum biochemical parameters of freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus following prolonged metal (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn) exposures. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 27: 360.

Palanisamy, P., G. Sasikala, D. Mallikaraj, N. Bhuvaneshwari and G. Natarajan. 2011. Haematological changes of fresh water food fish, Channa striata on exposure to Cleistanthus collinus suicidal plant extract. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, 2: 812-816.

Sachar, A. and S. Raina. 2014. Haematological alterations induced by lindane in a fish, Aspidoparia morar. Global Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Health Sciences, 3: 38-42.

Varin, A., A. Larbi, G. V. Dedoussis, S. Kanoni, J. Jajte, L. Rink, D. Monti, M. Malavolta, F. Marcellini, E. Mocchegiani, G. Herbein and T. Fulop. 2008. In vitro and in vivo effects of zinc on cytokine signalling in human T cells. Experimental Gerontology, 43: 472-482.

Vutukuru, S. 2005. Acute Effects of Hexavalent Chromium on Survival, Oxygen Consumption, Hematological Parameters and Some Biochemical Profiles of the Indian Major Carp, Labeo rohita. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2: 456-462.

Vutukuru, S. S. 2003. Chromium Induced Alterations in Some Biochemical Profiles of the Indian Major Carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 70: 118-123.

Younis, E. M. 2012. Hematological and enzymatic responses of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus during short and long term sublethal exposure to zinc. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Wardah Hassan, Sajid Abdullah, Naila Hadayat, Huma Naz, Shakeela Parveen

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Journal of Zoo Biology
ISSN: 2706-9761 (Online), 2706-9753 (Print)
© EScience Press. All Rights Reserved.