Pakistan and the Question of Recognizing Armenia: Pakistan-Armenia Relations, The Issue of Kashmir & Nagorno-Karabakh

Muhammad Fahim


This article aims to study the estrangement between Pakistan and Armenia in light of the issue of Kashmir and Nagorno-Karabakh. Most Pakistanis are not aware of the fact that Pakistan does not recognize Armenia nor have any official diplomatic relations with her due to Pakistan’s principle stance over the Nagorno-Karabakh issue. Armenia occupied more than 20 percent internationally recognized Azeri territory during the 1992 war between Azerbaijan and Armenia. Pakistan has brotherly and cordial relations with Azerbaijan. Pakistan not only supports the Azeri stance over the Nagorno-Karabakh issue but goes out of the way to not recognize Armenia as a sovereign state. In turn, Azerbaijan supports Pakistan’s stance on the Kashmir dispute. On the contrary, Armenia not only refused to withdraw its forces from the internationally recognized Azeri land but supports Pakistan’s arch-enemy India on the Kashmir issue as a diplomatic move to counter Pakistan. This is the first-ever study conducted on Pakistan-Armenia relations. The article explores the reasons behind Pakistan's decision not to recognize Armenia in great detail. It discusses the estrangement between the two countries, especially in light of the Kashmir and Nagorno-Karabakh issue.


Pakistan-Armenia relations; Recognition; Diplomatic relations; Nagorno-Karabakh; Kashmir

Full Text:



Abrahamyan, E. (2017). Armenia and India Build Strategic Relationship. Eurasia Daily Monitor, 14(70).

Ameen, M. A. (2018, Nov 3). Strange estrangement: Pakistan and Armenia, opinion. The Express Tribune. Retrieved from: story/1839430/6-strange-estrangement-pakistan-armenia/

Armenpress. (2020, Feb 10). Realities of the Azerbaijani-Pakistani Mercenary Tandem. Armenpress.

Bhaduri, A. (2020). Caucasian connections: Why closer ties with Armenia matter a lot for India. Retrieved from: trends/expert-columns-2/caucasian-connections-why-closer-ties-with-armania-matter-a-lot-for-india-5023261.html

Edwards, M. (2013). Armenia and Pakistan: Time for Change? Retrieved from: 09/armenia-and-pakistan-time-for-change.html

EurAsianTime. (2020, Jan 23). Pakistan-Turkey-Azerbaijan Trilateral Partnership Emerges As A Big Threat To Armenia. Retrieved from:

Government-of-Armenia. (2017). Vice President of India M. Hamid Ansari to arrive in Armenia [Press release]. Retrieved from: en/news/item/8873/

Hasan, S. (2013, Mar 9). Naval exercise Aman-13 concludes. Dawn. Retrieved from: https://www.

ISSI. (2017). Pakistan Relations with Central Asian Republics & Azerbaijan: Prospects and Challenges [Press release]. Retrieved from: seminar-on-pakistan-relations-with-central-asian-republics-azerbaijan-prospects-and-challenges-press-release/

Khan, Aarish U. (2013). Pakistan and Azerbaijan: Friends and Brothers [Press release]. Retrieved from

Khan, D. M. U. H. (2018, Jan 5). Armenia is an aggressor and destroyer of holy mosques, it cannot be a friend of any Muslim country. Daily Times. Retrieved from: 174072/armenia-aggressor-destroyer-holy-mosques-cannot-friend-muslim-country/

Makili-Aliyev, K., & Abbas, K. (2016). Pakistan-Azerbaijan Economic and Defence Cooperation. IPRI JOURNAL, 16(1), 42-58.

Malhotra, A. (2018). India - Armenia: So Far yet So Close. Chennai, India: Notion Press.

Mammadov, S. (2020, Mar 19). India Arming Armenia. What is hidden behind Military Aid? Dispatch News Desk (DND). Retrieved from: india-arming-armenia-what-is-hidden-behind-military-aid/184423

Mirza, A. M. (2020, Mar 4). Pakistan and Azerbaijan: common interests and mutual respect. Daily Times. Retrieved from: 569880/pakistan-and-azerbaijan-common-interests-and-mutual-respect/

Negi, M. S. (2020, Mar 2). India outshines Russia, Poland to bag USD 40 million defence deal in Armenia. India Today. Retrieved from:

Noor, M. A. (2018, Oct 18). Azerbaijan and Pakistan trade and business potential. Daily Times. Retrieved from:

Noor, M. A. (2020, April 26). Pakistan-Azerbaijan relations – reaches a new momentum, new spring. Azernews.Az. Retrieved from: https://www.

ONA. (2020, Jan 14). Embassy: There is no change in our position, Pakistan does not recognize Armenia as state. One News Agency. Retrieved from:

PanArmenia. (2016). Pakistan, not recognizing Armenia, announced its desire to sign an FTA agreement with the EAEU. Retrieved from:

Panneerselvam, P. (2020, Mar 31). Winning a Defence Deal with Armenia: India Walloped Turkey. The Diplomatist.

PIIA. (2005). Pakistan and the World (Chronology: April-June 2005). Pakistan Horizon, 58(3), 121-169.

Rajabova, S. (2015, Mar 28). Pakistan rules out diplomatic ties with Armenia until liberation of Azerbaijani lands. AZERNEWS. Retrieved from: https://www.

RFEA. (2016, Nov 24). Armenia Blocks Pakistani Presence In Ex-Soviet Body. Radio Free Europe-Armenia. Retrieved from: a/28137853.html

Saeed, S. M. (2018, Nov 16). Pakistan and Azerbaijan relations: 26 years of friendship to strategic partnership, Opinion. The Patriot. Retrieved from:

Saeed, S. M. (2019, Jan 19). Black January of Azerbaijan to Kashmir’s Pellet Horror. Dispatch News Desk (DND). Retrieved from:

Sarma, H. (2019). COMMENT 131- Azerbaijan: Pakistan’s newfound strategic partner in the Caucasus. Retrieved from:

Sassounian, H. (2016, Nov 29). Armenia Finally Counters Pakistan’s Anti-Armenian

Policies. The Armenian Weekly. Retrieved from:

Shahbazov, F. (2017). Response to Regional Challenges: Why Strategic Partnership of Azerbaijan and Pakistan is Important? Caucasus International Journal, 7(2). (2017). India to Build Earth Observation Satellite for Armenia, Build Human Capacity.

VestnikKavkaza. (2019, Feb 25). Fehmida Mirza: Pakistan doesn’t recognize Armenia as state. Vestnik Kavkaza News Agency. Retrieved from:

WION. (2019, Sep 27). PM: Armenia fully defends India's position on Kashmir. WION television.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Muhammad Fahim

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Journal of South Asian Studies
ISSN: 2307-4000 (Online), 2308-7846 (Print)
© EScience Press. All Rights Reserved.