Naseer A. Habib


The emergence of Pakistan has been the topic of many discussions. An effort has been made to view it through the prism of Oswald Spengler’s Cultural theory. Every culture has its own soul, distinctive entity, symbols and dynamics. The Hindus and  Muslims belong to different cultures. They have their own past and cultural traditions. After the debacle of 1857, the challenge of  British domination created fissure in their body politic. In this situation, these cultural symbols came to their rescue. The Muslim community of India seems to have been attracted to the symbol of Turkish Khilafat in order to rehabilitate its history in India.  But every upheaval that took place in Turkey caused a stir among the Indian Muslims. It evoked unprecedented response among the Indian Muslims. It was the magnetic field of these strong emotions that directed the needle of high politics. In 1924, The Muslims of India lost their important plank when the institution of Khilafat was abolished in Turkey. They replaced it with the idea of an Independent Muslim state. Having accepted it, Jinnah emerged as a symbol of “pious Sultan” for the masses.  When Gandhi united the goals of arhta and moksha, he emerged like Janaka for Hindu masses. The Congress could not gauge the depth of the Muslim feelings due to the compulsion of its concept of the essential unity of India. Therefore clash of Janaka with pious Sultan was inevitable. Herein lies the clue to the emergence of Pakistan. italics added).


Cultural dynamics, Collective memory, Pakistan, Sub-conscious trend, Symbol.

Full Text:



Ahmad, S. N. (1991). Origins of Muslim consciousness in India. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group, pp, 120, 130, 246.

Ansari, S. F. (1992). Sufi saints and state power Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 77.

Ahmad, S. N. (1991). Origins of Muslim consciousness in India. New York. Greenwood Publishing group, 84.

Ansari, S.F. 1992). Sufi Saints and state power. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Abid, Q & Massarat A. (2008). Muslim League, Jinnah And Hindu Mahasabha, J.R.S.P., 45(1), 148.

Ahmad, S. N. (1991). Origins of Muslim consciousness in India. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 170.

Batalvi, A. H. (1978). Iqbal ke aakhri do saal. Lahore: Iqbal Academy, pp, 395, 398.

Civil and Military Gazzette, Lahore. (1933, April 8).

Gandhi, R. (2000). Understanding the Muslim mind. India: Penguin Book India.

Gilani, Manazir Ahsan. (1416, Hijra). Ihata darul uloom deoband mein bite huia din. Karachi: Publisher Maktaba Hummadiyya, 25-26.

Gilmartin, D. (1988). Shahidganj mosque incident, Islam, politics and social movements. California: University of California Press, pp. 102, 154, 156, 163, 485-517.

Ghose, Sankar. (1993). Jawahar Lal Nehru. New Delhi: Allied Publisher limited, p. 45.

Gould, W. (2004). Hindu Nationalism and the language of politics in Late Colonial India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p-93.

Hamid, A. (1971). Muslim separatism in India. Lahore: Oxford University Press, p.192.

Ikram, S.M. (1992). Indian Muslims and partition of India. New Delhi: Atlantic Publisher and Distributors, 7, 153, 162, 170, 174, 175, 233, 372, 454.

Iyenger, A. S. (2001). Role of the press and Indian freedom struggle. New Delhi: A.P.H Publishing Corporation, 75.

Jalal, A. (2000). Self and sovereignty. Great Britain: Routledge, 88.

Johnson, G., & Seal, A. (1973). Locality province and nation, an essay on Indian Politics 1870-1940. New York: Cambridge University Press, 8, 38, 45, 111.

Khaliquzzeman. C. (1961). Pathway to Pakistan. Lahore: Longmans.

Kashmiri. S. (n.d.). Syed atta ullah. Lahore Mutboaatechataan, p. 74.

Lelyveld, D. (1989). Disenchantment at Aligarh: Islam and the realm of the secular in late nineteenth-century India in die Welt des islands, New Series Bd., 22, (¼), 85-102.

Lavan, S. (1974). The Kanpur Incident of 1913: the north Indian Muslim press and Its Reaction to Community crisis, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 42(2), 263-274

Madrass Mail. (1933, April 7).

Moore, J. (1983). Jinnah and the Pakistan demand, Modern Asian Studies, 17(4), 529-561

Muhammad. S. (2002). Education and politics from Sir Syed to the present day (The Aligarh School). New Delhi: APH Publishing Society, p. 75.

Munir Report. (1954). Report of the court of inquiry constituted under Punjab Act II of 1954 to inquire into the Punjab disturbance of 1953. Lahore: Government of Punjab, 231.

Ozcan, A. (1997). Pan Islamism Indian Muslims, the Ottoman & Britain, New York: Leiden, pp. 7, 64-65, 72, 116

Qureshi, N. (1999). Pan Islamism in Britain Indian Politics, Boston, Leiden: Brill, 1, 14-15, 33, 51, 58, 232, 364, 384, 415.

Rahman, M. (1970). From consultation to confrontation: a study of the Muslim league in British Indian politics, 1906-1912. London: Luzac, p. 228.

Reetz, D. (1980). Enlightenment and Islam, Indian Historical Reviews, XIV (1-2), 206-218

Robb, G. (1999), Muslim Identity And separatism in India, Bulletin of the school of Oriental and African studies, 54 (01), 104-125

Robinson, R. (1974). Separatism among Indian Muslims, The politics of the united provinces Muslims, 1860-1923.New York: Cambridge University Press, pp-164, 236

Robinson, R. (2000). Islam and Muslim history in South Asia. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 178, 222, 226

Robinson, R. (1993). Technology and Religious change; Islam and the Impact of Print, Modern Asian Studies. 27(1), 243

Roy, O. (2004). Globalised Islam the search for the new ummah. London: C. Hurts and Co. Ltd., 41.

Schimmel, A. (1963). Gabriel's Wings, A study into the Religious Ideas of Sir Muhammad Iqbal. Leiden: E.J, Brill, pp-18, 28,29.

Seal, A. (1973), Imperialism and Nationalism, Modern Asian Studies, l7(3), 321-347

Shahid, R. (2007), All India Muslim League; split and reunification, Pakistan Journal of History and Culture, XXVIII (1), 156-168

Shahid, D. Muhammad. (2007). Tareekh-e-Ahmadiyyat, history of ahmadiyyat. Amritsar, edition 6, 106.

Smith, W.C. (1957). Islam in modern history. New Jersey, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 41, 208, 210, 256.

The Sunday Times, (1933, April 9).

Talbot, I. (1988). Punjab and the raj: 1847-1947. Delhi: Manohar, p.69.

Talbot, I. (2000). India and Pakistan. London. OUP, p. 122.

Watt, M. (1964) Studia Islamica, No (21) 5-12

Wolpert, S. (2001). Gandhi’s Passions. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 43.

Wilcox, A., & Embree. A. (2004). The Reminiscences of sir zafrulla khan. USA: Oriental Publishers, 33-34.

Wilcox, A., & Embree. A. (2004). The reminiscences of sir zafrulla khan. USA: Oriental Publishers, pp-34.

Zakaria, R. (2004a). The Man who divided India. Mumbai: Popular Parakashan Pvt. Ltd., 16, 37.

Zakaria, R. (2004b). Indian Muslims: where have they gone wrong. Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhvan, p. 211.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Naseer A. Habib

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Journal of South Asian Studies
ISSN: 2307-4000 (Online), 2308-7846 (Print)
© EScience Press. All Rights Reserved.