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Influence of foliage applied moringa leaf extract on growth and yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) underwater deficit conditions

Muhammad N. Shah, Muhammad J. Shafi, Abdul Wahid

Abstract


With increasing population, the demand for food is also increasing. So, with the aim to increase the productivity of crop a field experiment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the foliar application of moringa leaf extract (MLE) at growth and yield of sunflower under water deficit conditions at Agronomy research area, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan. The treatments comprise of Factor A: Irrigation,(I0 = Normal irrigation, I1 = Skipped at knee height stage, I2 = Skipped at knee height + heading stage, I3 = Skipped at knee height + heading + seed development stage and Factor B: Foliar application of MLE (Subplot), T0 = No spray, T1 = Spray at knee height stage, T2 = Spray at knee height + heading stage, T3 = Spray at knee height + heading + seed development stage with randomized complete block design (RCBD) split-plot design in three replications. The interactive effect between moringa leaf extract (MLE) and irrigation was significant. Maximum head diameter (22.17cm), number of achenes per head (1030.30), 1000-achenes weight (49.73g), achene yield (3474 kg/ha), and biological yield (10729.83 kg/ha), oil content (41.734%), protein content (20.8%) was observed in F3 (K+H+S) and I0 (Normal) irrigation. While minimum head diameter (15.57cm), number of achenes per head (681.67), 1000-achenes weight (42.001g), achene yield (2536.33 kg/ha), and biological yield (8209.33 kg/ha), oil content (36.3%), protein content (16.27%) was observed in F0 (no spray) and I3 (K+H+S) irrigation. Results showed that foliar application of moringa leaf extract under normal conditions boost the crop yield and drought stress at (K+H+S) is detrimental for growth and development of sunflower.

Keywords


Moringa leaf extract; MLE; Protein content’; Oil content; Achene yield

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Journal of Arable Crops and Marketing
Open Access, International Journal
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