Manyi M. Msugh-Ter, Vajime C. Gbilekaa, Imandeh G. Nyiutaha


This study presents the infection rates of Plasmodium species in Anopheles mosquito populations within Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria using four malaria endemic localities: High-level, Wurukum, North- bank and Wadata, between July, 2011 and June, 2012 to cover dry and wet seasons. A total of one thousand, nine hundred and two (1,902) adult female mosquitoes, comprising anopheline mosquitoes were morphologically identified and dissected using standard keys and procedures. Of these, 1,040 (54.7%) were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.); 641 (33.7%) were Aonpheles funestus Giles and the remaining 221 (11.6%) were tagged ‘unidentified’ species of Anopheles mosquitoes. Chi-square statistic showed a significant difference between the mosquito species and their abundance (X2 test P < 0.05). An overall sporozoite infection rate of 54.9% was obtained in the study with Anopheles gambiae s.l. having the highest sporozoite rate of 31.5%, followed by Anopheles funestus with 17.9% while the ‘unidentified Anopheles species had the lowest sporozoite infection rate of 5.5%. The sporozoite infection rates differed significantly across the Anopheles species and also across the four localities (X2 test P < 0.05). Human behaviour, some environmental factors, including availability of breeding sites may explain the findings of this study.. The findings indicate that Makurdi is potentially endemic for malaria and that Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus are the major malaria vectors in the area.  The findings in this study provide the first systematically documented entomological baseline data required for implementation and evaluation of vector control interventions in the Makurdi area of Benue State. Hence the urgent need to initiate serious vector control measures in this area. The results of the studies have been discussed with respect to their epidemiological and public health as well as economic implications.


Sporozoites, Infection Rates, Anopheles mosquitoes, Makurdi, Nigeria

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